• biology
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fundamental of cell biology is the biogenesis and maintenance of intracellular organelles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cell Biology and Cancer developed with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is a creative, inquiry-based instruction. (merlot.org)
  • In cell biology, an organelle (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • His initial research focused on experimental embryology, and soon his interest shifted to cell biology under the influence of Arthur Pollister. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Rockefeller University he made his most groundbreaking achievements in cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2009 biographical memoir, Carol L. Moberg and Steinman wrote that "Zanvil Cohn may be most remembered as the founder of modern macrophage biology and for leading the shift in mid-twentieth-century research from bacterial cells to host-parasite relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prize was granted for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation which together laid the foundations of modern molecular cell biology, the most notable discovery being the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum - which he first described in 1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Renato Dulbecco winner of 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries concerning the functional organization of the cell that were seminal events in the development of modern cell biology", related to his previous research carried out at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palade was the first Chairman of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale University. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • There are for example some growth factors which have a signal sequence targeting the protein in mammalian cells to endosomes with a specific protease to cleave that pepide in acidic enviroment. (protocol-online.org)
  • membrane protein complexes: photosystem I, ATP synthase large DNA and protein complexes: nucleosome centriole and microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) cytoskeleton flagellum nucleolus stress granule germ cell granule neuronal transport granule Eukaryotic cells are structurally complex, and by definition are organized, in part, by interior compartments that are themselves enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recent studies, using advanced methods (i.e. fluorescence microscopy), show that protein aggregation may actually be a tightly regulated, organized process, by which the cell protects itself from toxic proteins by sequestration to inclusion bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, Daniel Kaganovich showed that eukaryotic cells sort misfolded proteins into two distinct inclusion bodies in a well-managed cellular process: The JUNQ (JUxta Nuclear Quality control compartment) The IPOD (Insoluble Protein Deposit) JUNQ and IPOD are evolutionarily conserved, and are found in specific and defined cellular sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segregation of toxic protein aggregates into JUNQ and IPOD inclusion bodies is a means by which mammalian cells can be rejuvenated through asymmetric division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the discovery of JUNQ and IPOD provided a new striking perspective of how cells manage misfolded aggregated proteins and gave convincing proof that protein aggregation is a non-random, well regulated and controlled cellular process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the discovery of JUNQ and IPOD suggested that in addition to temporal quality control (i.e. time dependent administration of damaged proteins) cells exploit homeostasis spatially: If degradation isn't available, protection of the cellular environment from a misfolded protein is accomplished by its sequestration to an aggregate inclusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of JUNQ and IPOD suggested new insights of how the cell manages different kinds of misfolded proteins and offered a novel framework for putting together the great puzzle of protein aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sonicator
  • There are often many different names for the same piece of mechanical homogenizing equipment, including Cell Lysor, Disperser, High Shear Mixer, Homogenizer, Polytron, Rotor Stator Homogenizer, Sonicator or Tissue Tearor. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis is commonly used to remove red blood cells in patients experiencing sickle cell crisis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that are containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via endosymbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The cell membrane is broken through different mechanisms. (emailwire.com)
  • Other related structures: cytosol endomembrane system nucleosome microtubule cell membrane Prokaryotes are not as structurally complex as eukaryotes, and were once thought not to have any internal structures enclosed by lipid membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In field-flow fractionation the field can be asymmetrical flow through a semi-permeable membrane, gravitational, centrifugal, thermal-gradient, electrical, magnetic etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria
  • The eukaryotic cell also contains a number of other specialized internal structures not found in prokaryotes including mitochondria, chloroplasts, and a rich array of internal fibers and membranes. (modernbio.com)
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts, which have double-membranes and their own DNA, are believed to have originated from incompletely consumed or invading prokaryotic organisms, which were adopted as a part of the invaded cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Palade used electron microscopy to study the internal organization of such cell structures as ribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • biologist
  • Albert Claude (24 August 1899 - 22 May 1983) was a Belgian medical doctor and cell biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zanvil Alexander Cohn (November 16, 1926 - June 28, 1993) was a cell biologist and immunologist who upon his death was described by the New York Times as being "in the forefront of current studies of the body's defenses against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • November 19, 1912 - October 8, 2008) was a Romanian-American cell biologist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Described as "the most influential cell biologist ever", in 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine along with Albert Claude and Christian de Duve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palade is survived by his wife Marilyn Farquhar, a cell biologist at the University of California, San Diego, and a daughter and son from his first marriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • In this animation, the process of sonication is examined to show how cells are separated by high-frequency sound waves. (merlot.org)
  • Chromatolysis is still used as a term to distinguish the particular apoptotic process in the neuronal cells, where Nissl substance disintegrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process he described now fits with the relatively new term, apoptosis, to describe cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • From observing the regression of ovarian follicles in mammals, it was argued that a necessary cellular process existed to counterbalance the proliferation of cells by mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of Nissl dissolution is less apparent toward periphery of the cell body of the neuron, where normal-looking Nissl bodies may be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1930, he discovered the process of cell fractionation, which was groundbreaking in his time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, though autolysis resembles the active process of digestion of nutrients by live cells, the dead cells are not actively digesting themselves as is often claimed and as the synonym self-digestion of autolysis seems to imply. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • A sorting apparatus and method for fractionating and simultaneously viewing individual microstructures, such as free cells, viruses, macromolecules, or minute particles in a fluid medium. (patentgenius.com)
  • Field-flow fractionation, abbreviated FFF, is a separation technique where a field is applied to a fluid suspension or solution pumped through a long and narrow channel, perpendicular to the direction of flow, to cause separation of the particles present in the fluid, depending on their differing "mobilities" under the force exerted by the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Field flow fractionation is based on laminar flow of particles in a solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • 1. I sociated the cell suspension (in Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.9), centrifuged the samples (5 min, 2000 g) and the Cell free extract was not clear. (protocol-online.org)
  • procedure
  • Erythrocytapheresis is an apheresis procedure by which erythrocytes (red blood cells) are separated from whole blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodies
  • Chromatolysis is the dissolution of the Nissl bodies in the cell body of a neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other stages included cell fractionation into smaller bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These budding fragments were termed "apoptotic bodies," thus coining the name "apoptosis" to describe this form of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral chromatolysis is essentially the reverse of central chromatolysis, in which the disintegration of Nissl bodies is initiated at the periphery of the neuron and extends inwards towards the nucleus of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Hence, relieving the cell from accumulating degradation products is a proposed mechanism by which this drug may help. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleolus
  • The event of chromatolysis is also characterized by a prominent migration of the nucleus towards the periphery of the cell and an increase in the size of the nucleolus, nucleus, and cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • components
  • In general, cells lacking core components of NHEJ are hypersensitive to IR and abolished for V(D)J recombination but are only partially defective for CSR and competent for circulation of transfected linearized plasmids, suggesting that there exists an "alternative" way to join at least some types of DSBs. (pnas.org)
  • Fractionation of components also takes place in column chromatography by a difference in affinity between stationary phase and the mobile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell fractionation, cell components are separated by difference in mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the separation of erythrocytes, whole blood is passed through an apparatus that isolates the red blood cells from the remaining components. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the hematocrit, or the percentage of blood volume taken up by red blood cells, is present in the highest percentage of all blood cell components in the solid portion of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duve
  • Christian de Duve, the chairman of the Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium, had been studying the mechanism of action of a pancreatic hormone insulin in liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • By way of explaining Cohn's importance, one commentator has noted that macrophages "are scavenger cells of the immune system that engulf and digest invaders, including bacteria and other pathogens, as well as toxins and dead cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to the absolute requirement for NHEJ to resolve DSBs associated with V(D)J recombination, DSBs associated with CSR can be resolved in NHEJ-deficient cells (albeit at a reduced level) by a poorly defined alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathway. (pnas.org)
  • In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis was measured using mitotically synchronized REC:myc(ch1) and Rat1:myc b cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis and the absence of a G 1 block for Rat1:myc b cells led to the prediction and observation of the novel "inverse split-dose effect," i.e. , a radiation dose given in two equal halves separated by a few hours yielded a higher level of apoptosis relative to that resulting from the same total dose given all at once. (aacrjournals.org)
  • nuclear
  • Cells having only one ligase (Lig1 or nuclear Lig3) are capable of DNA replication and DNA repair after exposure to a wide range of genotoxins. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that CSR levels are not further reduced by deletion of either of the two remaining DNA ligases (Lig1 and nuclear Lig3) in Lig4 −/− cells. (pnas.org)
  • lysosome
  • In other words, when the lysosome does not function normally, excess products destined for breakdown and recycling are stored in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The prokaryotic cell, so named because it lacks a discrete nucleus, is found in bacteria and blue-green algae. (modernbio.com)
  • The eukaryotic cell, by definition, has a nucleus that contains most of the cell's DNA. (modernbio.com)
  • In the nucleus of a typical eukaryotic cell, individual chromosomes can be identified only during cell division. (modernbio.com)
  • Peripheral chromatolysis has been observed to occur in lithium-induced chromatolysis and it could be useful in investigating and countering the hypothesis that waves of enzymatic activity always progress from the perinuclear area, or the area situated around the nucleus, to the peripheral of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • The Cell Fractionation market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status. (pitchengine.com)
  • Two-dimensional cytofluorimetric analysis of cells, pulsed-labeled with bromodeoxyuridine and then irradiated with 10 Gy, showed both G 1 and G 2 blocks (6-8 h) for REC:myc(ch1) cells but only G 2 block for Rat1:myc b cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, the length of DNA molecules in length of DNA in an individual composed of 1014 cells is 2x1014 meters. (modernbio.com)
  • fungi
  • The eukarytoic plan is observed in true algae, fungi, protozoans, and the cells of higher animals and plants. (modernbio.com)
  • fluid
  • Handling Biological Cells Utilizing a Fluid Integrated Circuit", 26 IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 352-357 (1990). (patentgenius.com)
  • Handling Biological Cells Utilizing a Fluid Integrated Circuit", IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting Presentations I735-40 (Oct. 2-7, 1988). (patentgenius.com)
  • market
  • Latin America Cell Fractionation Market is estimated to reach USD 307 million by 2021. (emailwire.com)
  • The major driving forces of the growth of the Cell Fractionation market in Latin America are increase in geriatric population, recent developments in biotechnology sector, growing awareness about new methods and stabilizing economy. (emailwire.com)
  • The Latin America Cell Fractionation market is broadly categorized on the basis of Product into Consumables, Reagents, Beads, Disposables and Instruments. (emailwire.com)
  • On the basis of Type of Cell, the segmentation of the market is Microbial and Mammalian wherein the mammalian segment leads the market because of rising aging population. (emailwire.com)
  • structures
  • Prokaryotic cells have relatively simple internal structures, although their metabolic activities are as complex as those in humans. (modernbio.com)
  • The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body, hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palade also received the U.S. National Medal of Science in Biological Sciences for "pioneering discoveries of a host of fundamental, highly organized structures in living cells" in 1986, and was previously elected a Member of the US National Academy of Science in 1961. (wikipedia.org)