• subsets
  • CD4 T cells have been divided into several subsets as defined by their cytokine products and functions after their activation. (rupress.org)
  • The initial two T cell subsets described were Th1 cells, which secrete IFN-γ and aid in the clearance of intracellular bacteria and viruses, and Th2 cells, which secrete IL-4 and IL-5 and help control extracellular pathogens. (rupress.org)
  • Discovery of the T cell subsets that produce IL-9 has expanded significantly in recent years. (rupress.org)
  • In this report, the hierarchy of IL-9 production by defined T cell subsets was compared. (rupress.org)
  • As expected, we saw that TGF-β can induce IL-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner ( Fig. 1 A ). To further characterize IL-9 production by various T cell subsets, cells were cultured under defined conditions known to induce a spectrum of T cell phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • However, unexpected observation of a developmental plasticity retained in mature T lymphocytes, in particular in CD4 + T-cell subsets, by recent studies is accelerating studies that focus on roles of each epigenetic pathway in cell fate decisions of T lymphocytes. (wiley.com)
  • Different subsets of CD4 + T helper cells are then generated to control different types of protective immunity. (rupress.org)
  • He has been instrumental in discovering the molecular basis of T-cell differentiation from precursor cells into differentiated subsets. (yale.edu)
  • IL-27 has been found to be involved in the production of IL-10 by stimulating the various subsets of T cells, especially Tr1 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • In the HLA class II-associated autoimmune syndrome rheumatoid arthritis (RA), CD4 T cells are critical drivers of pathogenic immunity. (rupress.org)
  • We now report that IL-12, a signature of cell-mediated immunity, represses Eomes while positively regulating T-bet in effector CD8 + T cells during infection with Listeria monocytogenes . (jimmunol.org)
  • Depletion of basophils using an antibody directed to the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) led to strongly reduced Th2 immunity in these models, whereas adoptive transfer of only basophils could induce Th2 polarization in naive antigen-specific T cells, without the necessity of DCs. (rupress.org)
  • BHLHE41 is known for its role in the circadian molecular mechanisms that influence sleep quantity as well as its role in immune function and the maturation of T helper type 2 cell lineages associated with humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • citation needed] Insulin has been shown in experimental models to downregulate expression of GATA3 by causing overexpression of T-bet, resulting in resistance to endocrine therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forced overexpression of PFKFB3 in RA T cells restored glycolytic flux and protected cells from excessive apoptosis. (rupress.org)
  • Constitutive overexpression of CREB3L4 resulted in the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, whereas knockdown of Creb3l4 expression caused differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes, bypassing the mitotic clonal expansion step. (nih.gov)
  • Its amplification and overexpression is especially pronounced in mantle cell lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen
  • The long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF7 cell model has been proposed to recapitulate acquired resistance to aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women. (nature.com)
  • The estrogen receptor-stimulates the expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone responses are often quickly induced in the cell using this priming method such as with the estrogen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • that TGF-β can induce IL-9 production, we stimulated T cells with the indicated concentrations of TGF-β and assessed their capacity to produce IL-9 after restimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, UVB, as with UVA, is able to induce cell damage due to generation of reactive oxygen species. (mdpi.com)
  • Tr1 cells are self or non-self antigen specific and their key role is to induce and maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress tissue inflammation in autoimmunity and graft vs. host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27 alone can induce IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, but in the absence of TGF-β, the cells produce large quantities of both IFN-γ and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 may induce IL-9 in some cases, and IL-33 is able to induce IL-9 in T cells generally. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a T h cell encounters and recognises the antigen on an APC, the TCR - CD3 complex binds strongly to the peptide-MHC complex present on the surface of professional APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNAIL and ZEB factors bind to E-box consensus sequences on the promoter region, while KLF8 binds to promoter through GT boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In thyroid cell differentiation FoxE binds to compacted chromatin of the thyroid peroxidase promoter and opens it for NF1 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor - CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and variable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor (IL-27R). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also involved are the STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors that bind specifically to the receptor subunits, IL-27ɑ and glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th2 cell reprogramming required T cell receptor stimulation, concerted type I and type II interferon and interleukin-12 signals, and T-bet. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tr1 cells express high levels of regulatory factors, such as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), OX40 (CD134), and tumor-necrosis factor receptor (TNFRSF9). (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 indirectly downregulates MHC II molecules and co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and force them to upregulate tolerogenic molecules such as ILT-3, ILT-4 and HLA-G. Cell to cell contact: Type 1 regulatory T cells poses inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 through which they exert suppressor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells, discovered in 1975, are the prototypical innate lymphoid cell, and have been described as large granular lymphocytes that lack the T cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They comprise ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells: ILC3s are a lymphoid cell population that can produce IL-22 and expresses NKp46 (an NK cell activating receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin 5 stimulates B cell growth and increases immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • In accordance with these profiles, MCF7-LTED cells showed increased sensitivity to inhibition of FGFR-mediated signaling with PD173074. (nature.com)
  • Colorectal cancer stem cell self-renewal was reduced by BMI1 inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Analysis of the genome‐wide binding properties of TAL1 in these two haematopoietic lineages revealed new insight into the mechanism by which transcription factors select their binding sites in alternate lineages. (embopress.org)
  • Immunology
  • The mechanism underlying the lineage decision made by CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) thymocytes that give rise to two T lymphocyte subset with distinct functionalities, that is, helper and cytotoxic T cells, remains a major issue in immunology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • vitro
  • In vitro studies of the patients to date have shown only mild T cell defect. (jimmunol.org)
  • Serial rounds of in vitro differentiation initially yielded IL-5 − Th2, but required multiple rounds of differentiation to generate IL-5 + Th2 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The ways of Tr1 cells induction in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro differ and also envelope many different approaches but the molecular mechanism, till this day, appears to be conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Together, these results reveal how a pathogen-associated signal, such as IL-12, could act as a switch, regulating appropriate clonal growth and decline while, in parallel, shaping a unique pattern of fate-determining transcription factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of TH9 cells is not absolutely clear yet but so far it seems that they main physiological role is defense against helminthis infections and it was also shown that TH9 cells are able to inhibit melanoma cells growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-9 produced by TH9 cells promotes survival of leukocytes such as CD4+, mast cells and others as well as promote growth of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Growth & Differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal expansion
  • Although earlier investigations of ICOS-null mice revealed normal numbers of naive/memory T cells and normal primary clonal expansion and survival of memory T cells, more recent investigation has demonstrated lower numbers of effector memory T cells (TEMs) in ICOS −/− mice in the steady state ( 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • proteins
  • Mutations (e.g. deletions, fusions) that affect the integrity of transcription factors by altering their DNA‐binding specificity and/or capacity to interact with cofactors can transform these proteins into potent oncogenes. (embopress.org)
  • Class II MHC proteins are generally only found on the surface of specialised antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies were performed by Menkin and Beeson in 1943-1948 on the fever-producing properties of proteins released from rabbit peritoneal exudate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal role of these cells, in a healthy host, is the elimination of antibody bound parasites through the release of cytotoxic granule proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the Poxviruses and Zinc-finger (POZ) and Krüppel (POK) family of proteins, and was identified in multiple screens involving either immune cell tumorigenesis or immune cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXA1
  • FOXA1 acts as a pioneer factor for ERa in ERα+ breast cancer, and its expression might identify ERα+ cancers that undergo rapid reprogramming of ERa signaling that is associated with poor outcomes and treatment resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • The specific cell-surface markers for Tr1 cells in humans and mice are CD4+ CD49b+LAG-3+ CD226+ from which LAG-3+ and CD49b+ are indispensable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • In essence, T cells in RA patients, even those in a naive state, are metabolically reprogrammed with insufficient up-regulation of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3, rendering them energy-deprived, ROS- and autophagy-deficient, apoptosis-sensitive, and prone to undergo senescence. (rupress.org)
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Members of the CD28 family play an important role in the regulation of T cell immune responses ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Epithelial cells are closely connected to each other by tight junctions, gap junctions and adherens junctions, have an apico-basal polarity, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and are bound by a basal lamina at their basal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells express high levels of E-cadherin, whereas mesenchymal cells express those of N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • IL-5 + Th2 cells are phenotypically distinct and have epigenetic changes consistent with greater IL5p accessibility. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pioneer factors can exhibit their greatest range of effects on transcription through the modulation of epigenetic factors by recruiting activating or repressing histone modification enzymes and controlling CpG methylation by protecting specific cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Our study suggests that extensive T cell dysfunction, decreased memory T cell compartment, and imbalance between effector and regulatory cells in ICOS-deficient patients may underlie their immunodeficiency and/or autoimmunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • precursor
  • PFKFB3 deficiency also constrained the ability of RA T cells to resort to autophagy as an alternative means to provide energy and biosynthetic precursor molecules. (rupress.org)
  • interleukin
  • TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ − ) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9 (IL-9). (wikipedia.org)
  • TH9 cells lack any specific biomarker and thus they are defined by their high secretion of interleukin‑9. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 is critical for interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NF-κB and NFAT1, are needed for a TCR-induced interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis for the term "interleukin" was to streamline the growing number of biological properties attributed to soluble factors from macrophages and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-5 is also expressed by eosinophils and has been observed in the mast cells of asthmatic airways by immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The α subunit is specific for the IL-5 molecule, whereas the βc subunit also recognised by interleukin 3 (IL3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • After resolution of infection and abatement of IL-12 signaling, Eomes expression rises whereas T-bet expression declines in memory CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • T-bet expression is primarily regulated in a positive manner by IFN-γ signaling in Th cells, whereas IL-12 signaling acts in a selective or instructive manner to "lock-in" T-bet expression in Th1 cells ( 2 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI + DCs readily did. (rupress.org)
  • peripheral
  • TH9 cells are present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients while such a population is rare in non-allergic persons. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Interaction of ICOS with its ligand is essential for germinal center formation, T cell immune responses, and development of autoimmune diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous research has showed that the ICOS-ICOS-L interaction is important for productive T-B cell coactivation, CD40-mediated Ig class switch recombination, and development of Th2 immune responses ( 1 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose foreign material (typically bacteria or viruses ), which undergoes processing , then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, functional reprogramming of unfavorably differentiated Th2 cells may facilitate the establishment of protective immune responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of innate immune cells that are derived from common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) and belong to the lymphoid lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • They do not require the missing "self" signal of MHC Class I and can recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies, allowing them to react much more quickly than the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-specific
  • In the latter model, it was hard to foresee a scenario whereby exceedingly rare antigen-specific naive T cells, DCs, and the innate cell-producing IL-4 could find each other in right the anatomical context of lymphoid organs draining the site of helminth infection. (rupress.org)
  • morphological
  • Primary Creb3l4 KO MEFs showed an increase in lipid accumulation and morphological differentiation compared with WT MEFs at D22, even in the insulin-containing medium (Figure 9a). (nih.gov)
  • Thus, EMT entails profound morphological and phenotypic changes to a cell. (wikipedia.org)