• immunity
  • T helper (T H )1 cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ, promoting cell-mediated immunity and control of intracellular pathogens. (springer.com)
  • In the HLA class II-associated autoimmune syndrome rheumatoid arthritis (RA), CD4 T cells are critical drivers of pathogenic immunity. (rupress.org)
  • We now report that IL-12, a signature of cell-mediated immunity, represses Eomes while positively regulating T-bet in effector CD8 + T cells during infection with Listeria monocytogenes . (jimmunol.org)
  • Different subsets of CD4 + T helper cells are then generated to control different types of protective immunity. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of basophils using an antibody directed to the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) led to strongly reduced Th2 immunity in these models, whereas adoptive transfer of only basophils could induce Th2 polarization in naive antigen-specific T cells, without the necessity of DCs. (rupress.org)
  • BHLHE41 is known for its role in the circadian molecular mechanisms that influence sleep quantity as well as its role in immune function and the maturation of T helper type 2 cell lineages associated with humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • overexpression
  • citation needed] Insulin has been shown in experimental models to downregulate expression of GATA3 by causing overexpression of T-bet, resulting in resistance to endocrine therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forced overexpression of PFKFB3 in RA T cells restored glycolytic flux and protected cells from excessive apoptosis. (rupress.org)
  • Constitutive overexpression of CREB3L4 resulted in the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, whereas knockdown of Creb3l4 expression caused differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes, bypassing the mitotic clonal expansion step. (nih.gov)
  • Its amplification and overexpression is especially pronounced in mantle cell lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticity
  • However, unexpected observation of a developmental plasticity retained in mature T lymphocytes, in particular in CD4 + T-cell subsets, by recent studies is accelerating studies that focus on roles of each epigenetic pathway in cell fate decisions of T lymphocytes. (wiley.com)
  • Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (frontiersin.org)
  • Epithelial and mesenchymal cells differ in phenotype as well as function, though both share inherent plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The data show that IL-9 neutralization and IL-9 receptor deficiency attenuates disease, and this correlates with decreases in Th17 cells and IL-6-producing macrophages in the central nervous system, as well as mast cell numbers in the regional lymph nodes. (rupress.org)
  • Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and variable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27 is expressed by antigen presenting cells and interacts with a specific cell-surface receptor complex known as IL-27 receptor (IL-27R). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also involved are the STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors that bind specifically to the receptor subunits, IL-27ɑ and glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tr1 cells express high levels of regulatory factors, such as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), OX40 (CD134), and tumor-necrosis factor receptor (TNFRSF9). (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-10 indirectly downregulates MHC II molecules and co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and force them to upregulate tolerogenic molecules such as ILT-3, ILT-4 and HLA-G. Cell to cell contact: Type 1 regulatory T cells poses inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 through which they exert suppressor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estrogen receptor-stimulates the expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numbers of molecules enhance or dampen IL-9 production and contribute to TH9 development such as: Activin A that can fully substitute the role of TGF-β in TH9 cells, then Jagged2, programmed cell death ligand (PD-L2), cyclooxy- genase (COX)-2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are defined by absence of antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene (RAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells, discovered in 1975, are the prototypical innate lymphoid cell, and have been described as large granular lymphocytes that lack the T cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They comprise ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells: ILC3s are a lymphoid cell population that can produce IL-22 and expresses NKp46 (an NK cell activating receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone responses are often quickly induced in the cell using this priming method such as with the estrogen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a mechanism for the cell to switch a gene on was observed with glucocorticoid receptor recruiting modification factors that then modify the site to bind activated estrogen receptor which was coined as a "bait and switch" mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin 5 stimulates B cell growth and increases immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Mutations (e.g. deletions, fusions) that affect the integrity of transcription factors by altering their DNA‐binding specificity and/or capacity to interact with cofactors can transform these proteins into potent oncogenes. (embopress.org)
  • Class II MHC proteins are generally only found on the surface of specialised antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies were performed by Menkin and Beeson in 1943-1948 on the fever-producing properties of proteins released from rabbit peritoneal exudate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal role of these cells, in a healthy host, is the elimination of antibody bound parasites through the release of cytotoxic granule proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the Poxviruses and Zinc-finger (POZ) and Krüppel (POK) family of proteins, and was identified in multiple screens involving either immune cell tumorigenesis or immune cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • We report that like other T cells cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF) β, Th17 cells also produce interleukin (IL) 9. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these results reveal how a pathogen-associated signal, such as IL-12, could act as a switch, regulating appropriate clonal growth and decline while, in parallel, shaping a unique pattern of fate-determining transcription factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of TH9 cells is not absolutely clear yet but so far it seems that they main physiological role is defense against helminthis infections and it was also shown that TH9 cells are able to inhibit melanoma cells growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-9 produced by TH9 cells promotes survival of leukocytes such as CD4+, mast cells and others as well as promote growth of mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Growth & Differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a Th cell encounters and recognises the antigen on an APC, the TCR-CD3 complex binds strongly to the peptide-MHC complex present on the surface of professional APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF4 binds to the promoter of Il-9 gene in TH9 cells and it is dependent on STAT6. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNAIL and ZEB factors bind to E-box consensus sequences on the promoter region, while KLF8 binds to promoter through GT boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In thyroid cell differentiation FoxE binds to compacted chromatin of the thyroid peroxidase promoter and opens it for NF1 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • that TGF-β can induce IL-9 production, we stimulated T cells with the indicated concentrations of TGF-β and assessed their capacity to produce IL-9 after restimulation. (rupress.org)
  • As expected, we saw that TGF-β can induce IL-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner ( Fig. 1 A ). To further characterize IL-9 production by various T cell subsets, cells were cultured under defined conditions known to induce a spectrum of T cell phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • The data show that Th17 (TGF-β + IL-6) cells and cells stimulated with TGF-β + IL-4 produced similar amounts of IL-9 ( Fig. 1 B ). As previously reported, it is also shown that conditions that induce the differentiation of adaptive T reg cells (TGF-β + IL-2) generate T cells that produce IL-9. (rupress.org)
  • Tr1 cells are self or non-self antigen specific and their key role is to induce and maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress tissue inflammation in autoimmunity and graft vs. host disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-27 alone can induce IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, but in the absence of TGF-β, the cells produce large quantities of both IFN-γ and IL-10. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 may induce IL-9 in some cases, and IL-33 is able to induce IL-9 in T cells generally. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXA1
  • FOXA1 acts as a pioneer factor for ERa in ERα+ breast cancer, and its expression might identify ERα+ cancers that undergo rapid reprogramming of ERa signaling that is associated with poor outcomes and treatment resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • An updated view on transcription factor GATA3-mediated regulation of Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Selective up-regulation of chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 upon activation of polarized human type 2 Th cells. (springer.com)
  • In essence, T cells in RA patients, even those in a naive state, are metabolically reprogrammed with insufficient up-regulation of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3, rendering them energy-deprived, ROS- and autophagy-deficient, apoptosis-sensitive, and prone to undergo senescence. (rupress.org)
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of the differentiation and function of T cells focusing on possible applications in various immune-mediated conditions, including autoimmune disorders and GVHD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The basis for the term "interleukin" was to streamline the growing number of biological properties attributed to soluble factors from macrophages and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The specific cell-surface markers for Tr1 cells in humans and mice are CD4+ CD49b+LAG-3+ CD226+ from which LAG-3+ and CD49b+ are indispensable. (wikipedia.org)
  • naive
  • Naive CD4 T cells from RA patients failed to metabolize equal amounts of glucose as age-matched control cells, generated less intracellular ATP, and were apoptosis-susceptible. (rupress.org)
  • In this model, naive CD4 T cells were the source of instructive IL-4. (rupress.org)
  • In the latter model, it was hard to foresee a scenario whereby exceedingly rare antigen-specific naive T cells, DCs, and the innate cell-producing IL-4 could find each other in right the anatomical context of lymphoid organs draining the site of helminth infection. (rupress.org)
  • Tr 1 cells are inducible, arising from precursors naive T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th9 cells can differentiate either from naive T lymphocytes or by a shift from TH2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-4 and TGF-β are necessary for naive T lymphocytes to differentiate into TH9 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • interleukin
  • interleukin (IL)-4-, IL-5-, and IL-13-secreting Th2, 1 and IL-17-producing Th17 cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • TH9 cells lack any specific biomarker and thus they are defined by their high secretion of interleukin‑9. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 is critical for interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NF-κB and NFAT1, are needed for a TCR-induced interleukin-9 production by TH9 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-5 is also expressed by eosinophils and has been observed in the mast cells of asthmatic airways by immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The α subunit is specific for the IL-5 molecule, whereas the βc subunit also recognised by interleukin 3 (IL3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Epithelial cells are closely connected to each other by tight junctions, gap junctions and adherens junctions, have an apico-basal polarity, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and are bound by a basal lamina at their basal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells express high levels of E-cadherin, whereas mesenchymal cells express those of N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Pioneer factors can exhibit their greatest range of effects on transcription through the modulation of epigenetic factors by recruiting activating or repressing histone modification enzymes and controlling CpG methylation by protecting specific cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The excessive immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow interfere with the production of new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal lymphoblasts develop into mature, infection-fighting B-cells or T-cells, also called lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ALL, both the normal development of some lymphocytes and the control over the number of lymphoid cells become defective. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • PFKFB3 deficiency also constrained the ability of RA T cells to resort to autophagy as an alternative means to provide energy and biosynthetic precursor molecules. (rupress.org)
  • vivo
  • In vivo Tr1 cells need to be activated, to be able to exert their regulatory effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ways of Tr1 cells induction in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro differ and also envelope many different approaches but the molecular mechanism, till this day, appears to be conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphological
  • Primary Creb3l4 KO MEFs showed an increase in lipid accumulation and morphological differentiation compared with WT MEFs at D22, even in the insulin-containing medium (Figure 9a). (nih.gov)
  • Thus, EMT entails profound morphological and phenotypic changes to a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Therefore, IL-9 is produced by T cells that play a role in both inflammation and immunosuppression. (rupress.org)
  • DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, H3K9 methylation and Polycomb repressive complexes, and briefly review the studies examining the role of these mechanisms during T-lymphocyte differentiation. (wiley.com)
  • In addition to its well-defined role in B cell and plasma cell differentiation (recently reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • It has now become evident that an antagonistic interplay between ThPOK and Runx transcription factor complexes plays an essential role in thwarting an alternate fate during the commitment process. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such CD4+ T cells are generally treated as having a pre-defined role as helper T cells within the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on these findings it seems to be apparent that TH9 cells have a role in autoimmunity and allergic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a direct role pioneer factors can bind an enhancer and recruit activation complex that will modify the chromatin directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneer factors can play a role in this by binding specific enhancers and flagging histone modification enzymes to that specific gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to childhood ALL, environmental factors are not thought to play a significant role. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • In contrast, T H 2 cells produce IL-4, which promotes allergic responses and is important in host defense against helminths. (springer.com)
  • On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In breast cancer, loss of MTA3 promotes EMT and invasiveness of breast cancer cells via upregulating Snail, which in turn represses E-cadherin adhesion molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stat6
  • STAT6, IRF4, GATA3 are absolutely required for TH9 cell development and other such as PU.1, BATF, NF-κB, NFAT1, STAT5, AP-1 contribute to TH9 sub-population commitment and to IL-9 production. (wikipedia.org)