• proteins
  • Identifying the messengers -- a large family of proteins that carry genetic signals and switch genes on and off -- and their roles in communicating at a distance has implications for the development of new strategies to treat diseases caused by malfunctioning genes or disrupted pathways of communication. (eurekalert.org)
  • The discovery came after Desiderio and his team used biochemical "bait" to fish for candidate proteins that physically bind to TFII-I. The fishing expedition returned one protein known to control when and how much calcium a cell takes in. (medindia.net)
  • A cell might change its shape (the cellular skeleton does this), move, make new proteins, or change some part of its metabolism or cycle (such as entering into the next part of its mitotic or meiotic-cell multiplication -cycle). (everything2.com)
  • That chance comes, under careful regulation, when cells open channel proteins in their outer membranes, enabling say calcium ions to enter. (eurekalert.org)
  • Outside a certain pH range, the proteins that make up human cells and tissues break down and the body fails. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, GJA1 can be found in the Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules between Sertoli cells and spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes, where it plays a key role in spermatogenesis and testis development through controlling the tight junction proteins in the blood-testis barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • By providing a platform to host a wide array of interactions from extracellular inputs to intracellular pathways, GAB proteins can act as a gatekeeper to the cell, modulating and integrating signals as they pass them along, to control the functional state within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of all the pathways activated by GAB proteins are not known, but it is easy to see that amplification of signal can progress quickly and these proteins can have large effects on the state of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical genetics is the investigation of the function of proteins and signal transduction pathways in cells by the screening of chemical libraries of small molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • If those molecules are taken up by neighboring cells, destroyed by extracellular enzymes, or quickly removed from the extracellular fluid in some other way, their influence is restricted to cells in the immediate vicinity of the releasing cell. (ukessays.com)
  • Their signal molecules, neurotransmitters, do not travel to the distant cells through the circulatory system as hormones do. (ukessays.com)
  • The molecules they transmit are called neurotransmitter s and the small space between the two cells is a synapse . (everything2.com)
  • When they change shape, they affect other molecules inside the cell, and that's called transduction. (everything2.com)
  • At the end of a chain of changing molecules, some molecule affects what the cell does, making a response. (everything2.com)
  • Cells can communicate with each other with the help of signalling molecules, but how do they do it? (ku.dk)
  • When looking at the tightly packed cells, the microbiologists' research shows that channels are actually formed in the cell membranes, so that the one cell can send direct messages via signalling molecules to the other cell. (ku.dk)
  • The biophysicists Mogens Høgh Jensen, Sandeep Krishna and Simone Pigolotti constructed a mathematical model for, how the signalling molecules spread and how the cells react to it. (ku.dk)
  • Their model shows that a very well ordered network pattern forms for how the signalling molecules move in a tightly packed cell culture. (ku.dk)
  • It is always such that the cells 'talk' with their nearest neighbour and it starts with the signalling molecules spreading outward. (ku.dk)
  • The model calculations for environments with dispersed cells show that here the cells send signalling molecules out into the environment where they move around until they reach a cell, which the signalling molecule then enters, after which the cell sends the message further out in the surrounding environment. (ku.dk)
  • Examples of artificially synthesized nanomachines include synthetic molecules, genetically engineered cells, artificial cells, and bio-silicon hybrid devices that are programmed to produce intended biochemical reactions. (igi-global.com)
  • The strength of the attraction between two surfaces of two germ layers is determined by the amount and type of cadherin molecules present on the cells' surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesion
  • Cell Communication & Adhesion publishes 6 issues per year in simultaneous print and online editions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been demonstrated that plakophilin-2 associates with an important component of the Na(V)1.5 complex, ankyrin G, and loss of ankyrin G via siRNA downregulation mislocalized plakophilin-2 and connexin 43 in cardiac cells, which was coordinate with decreased electrical coupling of cells and decreased adhesion strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Under normal conditions, calcium does not flow freely into and out of cells until a demand for it - such as a muscle contraction or nerve function -- triggers cells to take up the free floating element from their surroundings. (medindia.net)
  • An article published today, July 16, 2007, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides strong evidence for a novel type of communication between nerve cells in the brain. (scienceblog.com)
  • Epileptic seizures are customarily regarded to reflect an imbalance between the ability of nerve cells to excite one another, on the one hand, and to inhibit one another, on the other hand. (scienceblog.com)
  • Binding of a neurotransmitter to a receptor in turn causes excitation or inhibition in the other nerve cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • This is the "classic" means of communication between nerve cells, and lies at the base of most of current understanding of how the brain processes information and controls muscles in the body. (scienceblog.com)
  • Application of the electron microscope to examine tiny structures in nerve cells is a special interest of Dr. Patrick Hof of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, another of the PNAS authors. (scienceblog.com)
  • To this end, a research team led by Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) found that beta-amyloid-induced destruction of synapses""the connections that mediate communication between nerve cells""is driven by a chemical modification to an enzyme called Cdk5. (redorbit.com)
  • After NO is attached to Cdk5, it then jumps like a 'hot potato' to another protein called Drp1, disrupting its function and fragmenting mitochondria, the energy powerhouse of nerve cells. (redorbit.com)
  • This scenario disrupts communication between nerve cells, and thus memory and cognitive ability in Alzheimer's disease," said Dr. Lipton, professor and director of Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research Center. (redorbit.com)
  • Rather, the long, fiber like extensions of nerve cells release neurotransmitters from their tips very close to the target cells. (ukessays.com)
  • Brain cells have a special thing that reaches out to other nerve cells. (everything2.com)
  • Bruni A, Bigon A, Boarato E, Mietto L, Toffano G (1982) Interaction between nerve growth factor and lysophosphatidylserine on rat peritoneal mast cells. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • For example, in humans it is believed that there are many layers of genes which act as a group to prevent cancer by blocking the inappropriate proliferation of cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • But if these "tumor suppression genes" are defective, cells become blind to messages meant to ward off runaway cell proliferation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Called TFII-I, or TF "two eye," the protein long known to help control a cell's genes also controls how much calcium a cell takes in, a function critical for all cells, including nerves in the brain. (medindia.net)
  • Some research has found that when gap junction genes were transfected into tumor cells that did not have the gap junction genes, the tumor cells became stable and points to the ability of gap junction genes to inhibit tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • By now it is well known how the genes within the cells are regulated and a number of genetic cycles have been mapped including how characteristics are switched on and off and how the feedback reactions function. (ku.dk)
  • These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • triggers
  • By revealing the terminus of the pathway by which cells send and receive messages, the find promises a rational basis for the future treatment of some diseases and, more immediately, gives science a new grasp of a process that triggers decisive events in cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • regulate
  • The partner we found in the fishing experiment and the abundance of TFII-I outside the cell nucleus led us to suspect that this protein must be doing more than regulate gene expression," says Desiderio. (medindia.net)
  • another
  • Unless they've got additional material they've developed to facilitate direct transmission of DNA from one cell to another or mastered a process whereby continual production can be done without threat to the host or in a manner that can be easily extinguished I don't see what it is that they've added other than a term "Bi-Fi" (which is a cute term, I admit). (slashdot.org)
  • The cell responds, just as a person responds when he receives a communication from another person. (everything2.com)
  • When the fixed network equipment (FNE) detects that a particular communication unit ( 128 ) has entered another cell and/or needs to hand-off its communication to another cell site but has been denied, the cell site ( 114 ) sends the communication unit the neighbor cell list related to the new cell. (google.com)
  • At the same time, when this thin layer of dividing cells reaches the dorsal lip of the blastopore, another process occurs termed convergent extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another occurs at the bottom of a deep cavity in the antibiotic peptide vancomycin which binds a key carboxylate group utilized during the final stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby preventing bacterial cells from multiplying. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Plakophilin 2 localizes to cell desmosomes and nuclei and binds plakoglobin, desmoplakin, and the desmosomal cadherins via N-terminal head domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Now, having revealed the last leg of the communications pathway, the Wisconsin scientists have opened a window on the very root of genetically-mediated diseases like some cancers. (eurekalert.org)
  • It also reveals that the pathway from cell surface to the gene is remarkably direct. (eurekalert.org)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract The influence of heart failure on the process of cell communication was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters (11 months old) and the results compared with age-matched normal hamsters. (ahajournals.org)
  • protein
  • phosphates are what carries all this energy in cells) it energizes the next protein. (everything2.com)
  • In the cytoplasm, the protein regulates the microtubule network and, by extension, cell migration and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • ODIN was further analyzed and found to contain substantially less pY upon inhibition of SFK activity in SW620 cells, indicating that it is a formerly unknown SFK target in colorectal carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • In 2002, researchers won the Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) on the genetics of how cells "decide" to self-destruct, a topic now central to human cancer research. (eurekalert.org)
  • mechanism
  • In the latest worm-related news, today's publication provides evidence of a new mechanism through which cells in the worm's intestine signal for nearby muscle cells to flex by briefly making the area between them more acidic. (eurekalert.org)
  • surfaces
  • The researchers realized that when they depleted the cells of TFII-I, the cell responded by installing more calcium channels in their surfaces that allow calcium and only calcium to enter the cell. (medindia.net)
  • compounds
  • To establish a first messenger effect of serine phospholipids at least three criteria must be fulfilled: (a) the generation of lysoPtdSer upon cell damage, (b) the existence of binding sites for serine phospholipids in sensitive cells and (c) the functional response following the interaction of these compounds with the target cell. (springer.com)
  • In addition to cells, Xenopus or zebrafish embryos can also be screened in 96 well format where compounds are dissolved in the media in which embryos grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • messengers
  • The finding was stunning to us because calcium is one of the most important messengers in cells," says Desiderio, "and both it and TFII-I are in every cell. (medindia.net)
  • research
  • That is why we wanted to study cell communication and make a theoretical model, that clearly took the spatial position of different cells into consideration", explains Mogens Høgh Jensen, professor with the research group Biocomplexity at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen. (ku.dk)
  • The research is a collaboration between microbiologists, who perform the biological experiments with the cells and physicists, who calculate the mathematical models for the cell communication. (ku.dk)
  • He has also published on public policy and participated in the development of United States research guidelines for stem cell research, particularly embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental Cell Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemicals
  • Knocking down TFII-I and separately assaulting the cells with chemicals caused the cells to take up more calcium than usual. (medindia.net)
  • Cells far away from each other send their chemicals (hormones) through the blood stream to cells in other parts of the body, or even to other bodies. (everything2.com)
  • Binding
  • It has been demonstrated that deletion of the phosphotyrosine binding domain in ODIN will lead to an immaturely developed subcommissural organ (SCO) with a severe midbrain hydrocephalic phenotype, which means ODIN also plays a role in the proper development of the SCO and in ependymal cells in the cerebral aqueduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • They might be a group of cells all specialized to do something specific, mating cells, or cells all about to divide . (everything2.com)
  • Through the process of radial extension, cells of the animal pole that were once several layers thick divide to from a thin layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once convergent extension and radial intercalation are underway, the rest of the vegetal pole, which will become endoderm cells, is completely engulfed by the prospective ectoderm, as these top cells undergo epiboly, where the ectoderm cells divide in a way to form one layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • We think TFII-I must control calcium entry into the cell by somehow limiting the number of calcium channels at the cell's surface," says Desiderio. (medindia.net)
  • During the process of gastrulation, a special type of cells called bottle cells invaginates a hole on the surface of the blastula which is called the dorsal lip of the blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is reported that ODIN level is correlated with the degree of increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycle endosomes and recycle back to the cell surface, suggesting a role in EGFR recycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • critical
  • Earlier work focused on the emergent properties of complex systems such as ultrasensitivity (all-or-none switches) at critical junctures in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • opposites attract, and cells have harnessed these forces to drive life processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • These two processes allow for the prospective mesoderm cells to be placed between the ectoderm and the endoderm. (wikipedia.org)