• molecules
  • The molecules they transmit are called neurotransmitter s and the small space between the two cells is a synapse . (everything2.com)
  • Cell membrane s are made of lipid molecules. (everything2.com)
  • When they change shape, they affect other molecules inside the cell, and that's called transduction. (everything2.com)
  • At the end of a chain of changing molecules, some molecule affects what the cell does, making a response. (everything2.com)
  • Cells can communicate with each other with the help of signalling molecules, but how do they do it? (ku.dk)
  • When looking at the tightly packed cells, the microbiologists' research shows that channels are actually formed in the cell membranes, so that the one cell can send direct messages via signalling molecules to the other cell. (ku.dk)
  • The biophysicists Mogens Høgh Jensen, Sandeep Krishna and Simone Pigolotti constructed a mathematical model for, how the signalling molecules spread and how the cells react to it. (ku.dk)
  • Their model shows that a very well ordered network pattern forms for how the signalling molecules move in a tightly packed cell culture. (ku.dk)
  • It is always such that the cells 'talk' with their nearest neighbour and it starts with the signalling molecules spreading outward. (ku.dk)
  • The model calculations for environments with dispersed cells show that here the cells send signalling molecules out into the environment where they move around until they reach a cell, which the signalling molecule then enters, after which the cell sends the message further out in the surrounding environment. (ku.dk)
  • In molecular communication, information is encoded to and decoded from molecules, rather than electrons or electromagnetic waves. (igi-global.com)
  • Some examples of nanomachines found in nature are biological cells, molecular motors that produce mechanical work (e.g. myosin), and biochemical molecules, complexes, and circuits that are capable of processing chemical signals. (igi-global.com)
  • Examples of artificially synthesized nanomachines include synthetic molecules, genetically engineered cells, artificial cells, and bio-silicon hybrid devices that are programmed to produce intended biochemical reactions. (igi-global.com)
  • Since nanomachines are made of biological materials and not amenable to traditional communication means (i.e., electrons or electromagnetic waves), molecular communication provides mechanisms for nanomachines to communicate by propagating molecules that represent information. (igi-global.com)
  • These molecules act as diffusible chemical communication signals (bacterial pheromones) which regulate diverse physiological processes including bioluminescence, antibiotic production, piasmid conjugal transfer and synthesis of exoenzyme virulence factors in plant and animal pathogens. (wiley.com)
  • The strength of the attraction between two surfaces of two germ layers is determined by the amount and type of cadherin molecules present on the cells' surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • There are three different types of basic cell communication and they are: surface membrane to surface membrane, exterior, which is between receptors on the cell, and direct communication, which means signals pass inside the cell itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic Amp . (jove.com)
  • Most notably, the transfer of NO from SNO-Cdk5 to Drp1 triggers the loss of synapses, the part of a nerve cell that transmits electrochemical signals to other nerve cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Otago neurobiologist Associate Professor Ian McLennan and his Aberdeen colleagues have discovered that a protein known as transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) appears to regulate how motor neurons send signals to neighbouring brain cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Molecular
  • Models and methods of molecular communication are also reviewed, and research challenges that need to be addressed for further advancement of the molecular communication paradigm are discussed. (igi-global.com)
  • Molecular communication is an emerging technology that exploits biological materials or living matter to enable communication among biological nanomachines (or nanomachines in short) (Hiyama, 2005). (igi-global.com)
  • Molecular communication allows networking of nanomachines and potentially enables new applications in various domains including health (e.g., nanomedicine and tissue engineering), the environment (e.g., monitoring and quality control), ICT (Information Communication Technology)(e.g., implantable biological sensors and actuator networks), and military situations (e.g., biochemical sensing). (igi-global.com)
  • Over 60 research groups from the Munich area participate in the program, covering many aspects of life sciences including biochemistry, cell biology, molecular medicine, neurobiology and structural biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Some research has found that when gap junction genes were transfected into tumor cells that did not have the gap junction genes, the tumor cells became stable and points to the ability of gap junction genes to inhibit tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • By now it is well known how the genes within the cells are regulated and a number of genetic cycles have been mapped including how characteristics are switched on and off and how the feedback reactions function. (ku.dk)
  • OHHL is thought to bind to the LuxR protein, allowing it to act as a positive transcriptional activator in an autoinduction process that physiologically couples cell density (and growth phase) to the expression of the bioluminescence genes. (wiley.com)
  • These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Much of cell communication happens when ligands bind to the receptors of the cell membrane and control the actions of the cell through this binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertrophied myocytes show several abnormalities of ion pumps, calcium reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, hormone receptors, etc. 17 In CM hamsters, a calcium overload of the heart cells has been considered an important etiologic factor. (ahajournals.org)
  • genetic
  • Another team won in 2006 for the discovery in C. elegans of an ancient defense mechanism against attempts by viruses to disrupt cells' genetic machinery. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we show, via theoretical modeling of a population of noise-driven bistable genetic switches, that reliable timing of decision-making processes can be accomplished for large enough population sizes, as long as cells are globally coupled by chemical means. (upc.edu)
  • the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectoderm
  • Like the other two germ layers, mesoderm and endoderm, the ectoderm forms shortly after the egg is fertilized, and rapid cell division initiates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two processes allow for the prospective mesoderm cells to be placed between the ectoderm and the endoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once convergent extension and radial intercalation are underway, the rest of the vegetal pole, which will become endoderm cells, is completely engulfed by the prospective ectoderm, as these top cells undergo epiboly, where the ectoderm cells divide in a way to form one layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next event that will take place within the ectoderm is the process of neurulation, which results in the formation of the neural tube, neural crest cells and the epidermis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is these three components of the ectoderm that will each give rise to a particular set of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • opposites attract, and cells have harnessed these forces to drive life processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this Review , Rodrigo G. Arzate-Mejía, Félix Recillas-Targa and Victor G. Corces discuss evidence linking CTCF to the control of developmental processes in various cell and tissue types through 3D organization of the genome. (biologists.org)
  • The general physiological function of these simple chemical signalling systems appears to be the modulation of discrete and diverse metabolic processes in concert with cell density. (wiley.com)
  • bacterial
  • Another occurs at the bottom of a deep cavity in the antibiotic peptide vancomycin which binds a key carboxylate group utilized during the final stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby preventing bacterial cells from multiplying. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • In the latest worm-related news, today's publication provides evidence of a new mechanism through which cells in the worm's intestine signal for nearby muscle cells to flex by briefly making the area between them more acidic. (eurekalert.org)
  • reaches
  • At the same time, when this thin layer of dividing cells reaches the dorsal lip of the blastopore, another process occurs termed convergent extension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, GJA1 is expressed in many immune cells, such as eosinophils and T cells, where its gap junction function promotes the maturation and activation of these cells and, by extension, the cross-communication necessary to mount an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • One other kind of receptor is a ligand-gated ion-channel receptor, which is like a closed tunnel that opens when a signal molecule binds to it, letting ions from outside the cell go into the cell to make changes. (everything2.com)
  • Quorum
  • We have shown that activating the cells' communication system, also known as quorum sensing, in established biofilms causes the biofilms to disperse rapidly,' said Alexander Horswill, Ph.D., UI assistant professor of microbiology and senior study author. (uiowa.edu)
  • genetics
  • In 2002, researchers won the Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) on the genetics of how cells "decide" to self-destruct, a topic now central to human cancer research. (eurekalert.org)
  • another
  • Unless they've got additional material they've developed to facilitate direct transmission of DNA from one cell to another or mastered a process whereby continual production can be done without threat to the host or in a manner that can be easily extinguished I don't see what it is that they've added other than a term "Bi-Fi" (which is a cute term, I admit). (slashdot.org)
  • The PH domain of GAB2 recognizes phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate(PIP3) in the membrane and is responsible for localizing the GAB protein on the intracellular surface of the membrane and in regions where the cell contacts another cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • Associate Professor McLennan says the discovery of the TGF-β2protein's previously invisible role in regulating brain cell communication surprised the team. (healthcanal.com)
  • This function has been observed in brain and heart development, as well as wound-healing in endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Plakophilin 2 localizes to cell desmosomes and nuclei and binds plakoglobin, desmoplakin, and the desmosomal cadherins via N-terminal head domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • today's
  • HUBER+SUHNER announces a new small coaxial connector system that has been designed specifically to meet the space limitation requirements of today's small cell mobile communications. (radio-electronics.com)
  • The NEX10 connector has been designed by three leading RF interconnection manufacturers - HUBER+SUHNER, Radiall and Rosenberger - to meet existing and future demands of small cell networks for today's 4G and the upcoming 5G networks. (radio-electronics.com)
  • migration
  • In the cytoplasm, the protein regulates the microtubule network and, by extension, cell migration and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle
  • Despite considerable differences in cell size and length of cell cycle among some of the species, the transplants gave rise to fully differentiated clones that were integrated into the host tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Earlier work focused on the emergent properties of complex systems such as ultrasensitivity (all-or-none switches) at critical junctures in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The research is a collaboration between microbiologists, who perform the biological experiments with the cells and physicists, who calculate the mathematical models for the cell communication. (ku.dk)
  • system
  • Dialysis of Ang II (10 −8 mol/L) into the myopathic cell reduced gj by 48±4.2%, an effect abolished by losartan (10 −8 mol/L). The results indicate that the decline in gj seen in the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters is in part due to activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. (ahajournals.org)
  • For that an organised communication system is needed, so that the body or the plant knows what is happening all the way out in the individual cells. (ku.dk)
  • The two most well-known examples are the network, which reacts to infection and the system that ensures that sick cells commit 'suicide' and are removed from the body. (ku.dk)
  • The present invention provides a method for improving the communication coverage in a multi-cell communication system (100) which employs neighbor cell lists. (google.com)
  • In this manner the effective communication coverage of the system is improved. (google.com)
  • We did not predict this, and the finding fundamentally alters our understanding of how communication between cells in the brain's motor system is controlled. (healthcanal.com)
  • divide
  • They might be a group of cells all specialized to do something specific, mating cells, or cells all about to divide . (everything2.com)
  • Through the process of radial extension, cells of the animal pole that were once several layers thick divide to from a thin layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • consideration
  • That is why we wanted to study cell communication and make a theoretical model, that clearly took the spatial position of different cells into consideration", explains Mogens Høgh Jensen, professor with the research group Biocomplexity at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen. (ku.dk)
  • known
  • Once this lip has been established, the bottle cells will extend inward and migrate along the inner wall of the blastula known as the roof of the blastocoel. (wikipedia.org)
  • means
  • It has been demonstrated that deletion of the phosphotyrosine binding domain in ODIN will lead to an immaturely developed subcommissural organ (SCO) with a severe midbrain hydrocephalic phenotype, which means ODIN also plays a role in the proper development of the SCO and in ependymal cells in the cerebral aqueduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • 4. The method of claim 2 , wherein the step of detecting includes receiving a new cell request signal. (google.com)
  • process
  • Abstract The influence of heart failure on the process of cell communication was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the ventricle of cardiomyopathic hamsters (11 months old) and the results compared with age-matched normal hamsters. (ahajournals.org)
  • At the start of this process, the developing embryo has divided into many cells separating the embryo, which is now a hollow sphere of cells called the blastula, into two parts, the animal hemisphere and vegetal hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the process of gastrulation, a special type of cells called bottle cells invaginates a hole on the surface of the blastula which is called the dorsal lip of the blastopore. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • According to HUBER+SUHNER, the industry's move to the small cell approach has demanded the development of this small high-performance RF coaxial connector, the NEX10, to match the cell's smaller radio and antenna. (radio-electronics.com)
  • Cell-cell communication is not only a common strategy for cell fate specification in vertebrates, but plays important roles in invertebrate development as well. (biologists.org)
  • Following interspecific transplantation, the development of single ectodermal cells was traced in order to test their abilities to proliferate and differentiate in a heterologous environment. (biologists.org)
  • A recent paper in Development explores how cell identity is secured in the Drosophila ovary by studying the function of the conserved tumour suppressor L(3)mbt. (biologists.org)
  • study
  • The worm's influence proceeds from the fact that its cells resemble human cells in many ways, but are easier to study. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a study, 64 colorectal cancer cell lines were tested for their expression of Lck. (wikipedia.org)