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  • Biology
  • Also visit our affiliated journals, Cell Stem Cell and Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology , included in Professional Resources. (isscr.org)
  • Journal of Cell Science publishes cutting-edge science, e ncompassing all aspects of cell biology. (biologists.org)
  • they are supported by an outstanding Editorial Advisory Board that reflects all relevant areas in cell biology, including recently emerging fields. (biologists.org)
  • We are pleased to accept submissions for our upcoming Special Issue on Reconstituting Cell Biology , guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Have you seen our latest special issue on Plant Cell Biology , guest edited by Jenny Russinova? (biologists.org)
  • He has over 25 years experience in cell biology with specific interests in cell culture technology, neuroscience and stem cell research. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Schwann cells are involved in many important aspects of peripheral nerve biology-the conduction of nervous impulses along axons, nerve development and regeneration, trophic support for neurons, production of the nerve extracellular matrix, modulation of neuromuscular synaptic activity, and presentation of antigens to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein & Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed open access journal covering protein and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Calcium is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier that covers the field of cell biology and focuses mainly on calcium signalling and metabolism in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cellular biology, labile cells are cells that multiply constantly throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology portal Stable cells, which only multiply when receiving external stimulus to do so Permanent cells, which don't have the ability to multiply Encyclopædia Britannica Online: labile cell McConnell, Thomas H. (2007-01-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and is affiliated with the Chinese Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous
  • Historically, adenocarcinoma was more often seen peripherally in the lungs than small cell lung cancer and squamous cell lung cancer, both of which tended to be more often centrally located. (wikipedia.org)
  • LCLC's have typically comprised around 10% of all NSCLC in the past, although newer diagnostic techniques seem to be reducing the incidence of diagnosis of "classic" LCLC in favor of more poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer that begins in squamous cells , which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. (cancer.gov)
  • epithelium
  • The dark cell epithelium consists of cells with a multitude of pinocytotic vesicles near their luminal surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cells are exploited by several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as infectious prions, such as in bovine spongiform encephalitis (Mad-cow disease), as a way of penetrating the intestinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR4 tropic but not CCR5 tropic HIV has been noted to be able to bind to M cells and get transported across the epithelium by them. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells have been implicated in the developmental of M cells, since they are also localized in high numbers in the follicular-associated epithelium (FAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, microbes found on intestinal epithelium are known to direct M cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Next, using a disarmed virus, the T cells are genetically engineered to produce receptors on their surface called chimeric antigen receptors, or CARs. (cancer.gov)
  • These receptors are "synthetic molecules, they don't exist naturally," explained Carl June, M.D., of the University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center, during a recent presentation on CAR T cells at the National Institutes of Health campus. (cancer.gov)
  • These special receptors allow the T cells to recognize and attach to a specific protein, or antigen , on tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The second hit is characterized by an activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14, receptors on the Kupffer cell that internalize endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial precursor cells secrete platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and mesangial cells have receptors for PDGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are recognized via expression of cell surface receptors such as glycoprotein-2 (GP2) that detect and specifically bind to bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • secrete
  • Cells that secrete only somatotropin or only prolactin are known as somatotrophs and mammotrophs, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cells do not secrete mucus or digestive enzymes, and have a thinner glycocalyx, which allows them to have easy access to the intestinal lumen for endocytosis of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • The ISSCR 2018 Annual Meeting went "down under" to Melbourne, Australia where 3,000 stem cell scientists, clinicians, and professionals from 52 countries gathered to share their latest research, network with colleagues, and explore the latest technologies driving the field forward. (isscr.org)
  • immune
  • A rapidly emerging immunotherapy approach is called adoptive cell transfer (ACT): collecting and using patients' own immune cells to treat their cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • As its name implies, the backbone of CAR T-cell therapy is T cells , which are often called the workhorses of the immune system because of their critical role in orchestrating the immune response and killing cells infected by pathogens. (cancer.gov)
  • In women who engaged in lower levels of healthy behaviors, there was a significantly greater decline in telomere length in their immune cells for every major life stressor that occurred during the year. (newswise.com)
  • This is the first study that supports the idea, at least observationally, that stressful events can accelerate immune cell aging in adults, even in the short period of one year. (newswise.com)
  • Exciting, though, is that these results further suggest that keeping active, and eating and sleeping well during periods of high stress are particularly important to attenuate the accelerated aging of our immune cells," said Puterman. (newswise.com)
  • B-cells are a specific type of lymph cell that affect a body's immune system. (va.gov)
  • Lymphoma and myeloma, derived from cells of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • not in citation given] Immune system cells, such as White Blood cells are thought to use a dual receptor system when they determine whether or not to kill sick, or damaged human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are known to initiate mucosal immunity responses on the apical membrane of the M cells and allow for transport of microbes and particles across the epithelial cell layer from the gut lumen to the lamina propria where interactions with immune cells can take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of M cells is the selective endocytosis of antigens, and transporting them to intraepithelial macrophages and lymphocytes, which then migrate to lymph nodes where an immune response can be initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors promoting the differentiation of M cells have yet to be elucidated, but they are thought to develop in response to signals from immune cells found in developing Peyer's patches. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Here, we show that lumen formation begins on the interior of single cells, with the formation of an apicosome: a highly organized intracellular membrane-bound apical lumenal compartment studded with microvilli and a primary cilium. (rupress.org)
  • The anchor cell next removes the basement membrane that separates the uterus and vulva and invades, initiating the connection between the uterus and the vulva. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary function of mesangial cells is to remove trapped residues and aggregated protein from the basement membrane thus keeping the filter free of debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anchoring filaments from mesangial cells to the glomerular basement membrane can alter capillary flow by changing glomerular ultrafiltration surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraction of mesangial cells is dependent on cell membrane permeability to calcium ions and relaxation is mediated by paracrine factors, hormones and cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • A numerable portion of infoldings occurs at the basal end of the dark cell toward the basal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basolateral membrane also contains a Na+/K+/Cl--co-transporter, (NKCC1) which transports all three ions into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell wall composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses, pectin and in many cases lignin, is secreted by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • intercellular communication
  • Cell walls perform many essential functions: they provide shape to form the tissue and organs of the plant, and play an important role in intercellular communication and plant-microbe interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Since too much free-floating iron is toxic, when cells need iron they construct a special protein signal on their surfaces. (washington.edu)
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (washington.edu)
  • The shape, size, protein composition, and texture of the nucleus are often altered in malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell research suggests that too much SP2 protein MAY turn stem cells into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical membranes of the dark cells also have a k+ channel which is formed of two subunits, the KCNE1 regulatory protein and the KCNQ1 channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular prion protein (PrP) is another example of a cell surface receptor on M cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the type III secretion system effector protein SopB activates the transition of M cells from enterocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • All types can occur in unusual histologic variants and as mixed cell-type combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. (cancer.org)
  • Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. (cancer.gov)
  • The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. (cancer.gov)
  • This article is about the cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve cells, an example of a cell type after differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using doses between 1 μM to 3 μM of RA can generate neurons as the most abundant cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy type), schwannomatosis, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and leprosy are all neuropathies involving Schwann cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this process, the Schwann cells can guide regeneration by forming a type of tunnel that leads toward the target neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that they share the same origin as supporting cells such as pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, or even be a type of specialised vascular smooth muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Labile cells are one type of the cells that are involved in the division of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these type of cells respond to injuries of the cells they occupy differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • A somatomammotroph or somatomammotrophic cell, also known as a somatolactotroph or somatolactotrophic cell, is a type of cell of the anterior pituitary gland that produces both somatotropin (growth hormone) and prolactin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary wall lacks lignin that would make it tough and rigid, so this cell type provides what could be called plastic support - support that can hold a young stem or petiole into the air, but in cells that can be stretched as the cells around them elongate. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Other than into neurons and astrocytes, P19 cells can also differentiate to oligodendrocytes, which can be detected using the specific markers, myelin-associated glycoprotein and 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • basolateral
  • As mentioned in dark cell structure, the basolateral membranes of vestibular dark cells are highly folded, allowing the enclosure of the numerous large mitochondria, and they contain high levels of Na+/K+-ATPase in both alpha and beta isoforms, transporting potassium into the cell in exchange for sodium while consuming ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they present microvilli, they are short, irregular, and present on the apical surface or pocket-like invagination on the basolateral surface of these cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • Angiosarcoma starts in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels. (cancer.org)
  • The scientist called them "Sternzellen" (star cells or hepatic stellate cell) but thought, inaccurately, that they were an integral part of the endothelium of the liver blood vessels and that they originated from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • Other cell types that are thought to be cells that are constantly dividing include skin cells, cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and blood cells in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microfold cells (or M cells) are found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine, and in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjacent
  • The gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called nodes of Ranvier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraglomerular mesangial cells are adjacent to the intraglomerular mesangial cells that are located inside the glomerulus and in between the capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized cell-to-cell communication pathways known as plasmodesmata, pores in the primary cell wall through which the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum of adjacent cells are continuous. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • FAE lacking B cell populations results in a decrease in the number of M cell lining the Peyer's patches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some parenchyma cells, as in the epidermis, are specialized for light penetration and focusing or regulation of gas exchange, but others are among the least specialized cells in plant tissue, and may remain totipotent, capable of dividing to produce new populations of undifferentiated cells, throughout their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation ). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this has the adverse effect of also striking against the cells normally dividing in the body, and thus impairing normal body function of hair, skin, GI tract and bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • If damage occurs to a nerve, the Schwann cells will aid in digestion of its axons (phagocytosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesangial cells play a role in restricting macromolecules from accumulating in the mesangial space by receptor- independent uptake processes of phagocytosis, micro- and macro-pinocytosis, or receptor-dependent processes and then transported along the mesangial stalk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their neighbor cells, M cells have the unique ability to take up antigen from the lumen of the small intestine via endocytosis, phagocytosis, or transcytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • irregular
  • In normal cells, the nucleus is often round or ellipsoid in shape, but in cancer cells the outline is often irregular. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Mesangial cells have irregular shapes with flattened-cylinder-like cell bodies and processes at both ends containing actin, myosin and actinin, giving mesangial cells contractile properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • Over the last two decades, targeted therapies like imatinib (Gleevec®) and trastuzumab (Herceptin®) -drugs that target cancer cells by homing in on specific molecular changes seen primarily in those cells-have also cemented themselves as standard treatments for many cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • If all goes as planned, the engineered cells further multiply in the patient's body and, with guidance from their engineered receptor, recognize and kill cancer cells that harbor the antigen on their surfaces. (cancer.gov)
  • In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they don't grow through the wall of the lobules. (cancer.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • It was highly selective at killing the cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • Most available chemotherapies are very toxic, destroying one normal cell for every five to 10 cancer cells killed, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (washington.edu)
  • Artemisinin alone is fairly effective at killing cancer cells. (washington.edu)
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (washington.edu)
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells get sloppy at maintaining free iron, so they are more sensitive to artemisinin," Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer cells are already under significant stress from their high iron contents and other imbalances, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • This compound works on a general property of cancer cells, their high iron content. (washington.edu)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumours or flooding the blood with abnormal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy cells stop dividing when there is no longer a need for more daughter cells, but cancer cells continue to produce copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are created when the genes responsible for regulating cell division are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • These work to help the white blood cells to detect and kill cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells have unique features that make them "immortal" according to some researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells in humans may result in the patient's death if the aggressive cancer cell grows and metastasizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, researchers utilize these cells to study the development of cancer cells in order to find more specific treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organoids
  • Network with industry experts, gain insight into how the pharmaceutical industry is utilizing 3D Cell Culture technologies to enhance research and development, discuss the potential for novel in-vitro cell culture models to replace animal models, and discover novel 3D cell culture systems, organ-on-chip, 3D imaging of organoids and other technologies in development. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • form
  • Rigorous peer review and fair decisions form the bedrock of the journal and maintain Journal of Cell Science as a solid forum for communicating the best research. (biologists.org)
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common form of leukemia and is characterized by production of an excessive number of white blood cells. (va.gov)
  • Finally the anchor cell fuses with eight of the π cells to form the uterine seam cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer-Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids that form part of the mononuclear phagocyte system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In myelinated axons, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some group around smaller axons (External image here) and form Remak bundles Myelinating Schwann cells begin to form the myelin sheath in mammals during fetal development and work by spiraling around the axon, sometimes with as many as 100 revolutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesangial cells form a glomerular functional unit with glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes through interactions of molecular signalling pathways which are essential for the formation of the glomerular tuft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocytes of the liver are thought to be a form of a labile cell because they can regenerate after they become injured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological and immunohistochemical studies in several species have indicated that these dark cell areas also form a single layer resting on top of pigmented cells at the base of the cristae ampullaris in the semi-circular canals and around the utricular macula. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • While many of the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in neoplasms are probably neutral evolution , many have been shown to increase the proliferation of the mutant cells, or decrease their rate of death ( apoptosis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest ideas about neoplastic evolution come from Boveri who proposed that tumors originated in chromosomal abnormalities passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies researching damaged dark cells due to genetic abnormalities or therapeutics are very important in attempting to understand the onset and mechanism of said balance impairments. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • Thus, a cell that acquires a mutation that increases its fitness will generate more daughter cells than competitor cells that lack that mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a multicellular aggregate of hPSCs, intracellular apicosomes from multiple cells are trafficked to generate a common lumenal cavity. (rupress.org)
  • More recently, various studies generate cell lines that were initially derived from differentiated P19 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • In 2017, two CAR T-cell therapies were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one for the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adults with advanced lymphomas. (cancer.gov)
  • sperm
  • These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motile, free-swimming sperm of bryophytes and pteridophytes, cycads and Ginkgo are the only cells of land plants to have flagella similar to those in animal cells, but the conifers and flowering plants do not have motile sperm and lack both flagella and centrioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomeres
  • Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that affect how quickly cells age. (newswise.com)
  • While the telomeres of most cells shortens after each division eventually causing the cell to die, telomerase extends the cell's telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • However, the results of the study did not point at significant mutations in Fañanas cells but rather described the possible importance of astrocytes in general in the aetiology of CJD. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • However, a lack of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes can impair the natural killer cells' function, ultimately leading to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are delivered to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative
  • When you join the ISSCR, you become part of the world's largest and most renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. (isscr.org)
  • The ISSCR provides a platform for professional and public education and the promotion of rigorous scientific and ethical standards in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. (isscr.org)
  • histological
  • however, studies indicate an earlier histological and immunohistological maturity in the dark-cell areas compared to the stria vascularis. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligodendrocytes
  • Moreover, oligodendrocytes also developed and migrated into fiber bundles in mice when the RA-induced cells were transplanted into the brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this sense, Schwann cells are the peripheral nervous system's analogues of the central nervous system's oligodendrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike oligodendrocytes, each myelinating Schwann cell provides insulation to only one axon (see image). (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage
  • Damage to mesangial cells using Thy 1-1 antibody specific to mesangial cells causes the vasoconstriction of arterioles mediated by tubuloglomerular feedback to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucus
  • Cancer that begins in the cells that line the alveoli and make substances such as mucus . (cancer.gov)
  • treatments
  • In the next few years," he said, "I think we're going to see dramatic progress and push the boundaries of what many people thought was possible with these adoptive cell transfer-based treatments. (cancer.gov)
  • For most patients with non-small cell lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • organs
  • Successful axons can therefore reconnect with the muscles or organs they previously controlled with the help of Schwann cells, however, specificity is not maintained and errors are frequent, especially when long distances are involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • Human foetal and infant kidneys stained for alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for mesangial cells, demonstrated that α-SMA-positive mesenchymal cells migrate towards the glomerulus and during a later stage they can be found within the mesangium. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells can also be identified by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components expressed at the edge of cells or on their cell surfaces, such as actin, villin, cytokeratin, and vimentin. (wikipedia.org)