• side of the membrane
  • Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work: they transport solutes in a direction opposite to their thermodynamically preferred direction of movement-that is, from the side of the membrane where they are in low concentration to the side where they are in high concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • A number of different approaches have been used to study the function of vestibular hair cells in processing the mechanical stimulus and producing the activation of the first afferent neuron. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, as energy loss and ATP production, both of which are interactively and proportionally linked to TMP, it seems reasonable to suppose that an increase in TMP would not only restore homeostasis to cells in which a toxin, infection or injury has lowered their energy resources (Cove, 1990), but also provide the necessary stimulus for new-cell differentiation in the process of tissue repair (Becker, 1974). (rife.org)
  • It inhibits action potentials by increasing the stimulus required to move the membrane potential to the action potential threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myogenic response refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal
  • There are various specialized forms of myocytes: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, Ca2+ sparks depend on the opening of ryanodine receptors, of which there are three types: Type 1 - found mainly in skeletal muscle Type 2 - found mainly in the heart Type 3 - found mainly in the brain Opening of the channel allows Ca2+ to pass from the SR, into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, however, these receptors are located within structures known as T-tubules, that are extensions of the plasma membrane penetrating deep into the cell (see figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Only type II hair cells are present in this preparation, and they are in the physiological milieu, with the apical membrane in contact with the endolymph and the basolateral membrane surrounded by a perilymph-like solution. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate how physiological Ca 2+ signaling might affect energy production, ΔΨ m was examined during Ca 2+ oscillations in smooth muscle cells. (biologists.org)
  • Many physiological processes are accompanied by changes in cell membrane potential which can be detected with voltage sensitive dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • At isolated hair cells, the K channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) is shown to block a fraction of total voltage-dependent K-conductance (IKD) that depends on TEA concentration but not on membrane potential ( V m ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In cell cultures treated with CoQ10/TPGS and DMSO the cell viability was greater in a fixed concentration range compared to TPGS and DMSO alone. (arvojournals.org)
  • The increase of the calcium concentration in the cell stimulates the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is important as it helps to maintain Ca2+ concentration within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows Ca2+ to pass into the cell, increasing the local Ca2+ concentration, around the RyR. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs roughly 100 times every second in each cell and is a result of Ca2+ concentration being too high. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in Ca2+ concentration within the cell or the production of a larger spark, can lead to a large enough calcium released that the neighbouring cluster can be activated by the first. (wikipedia.org)
  • This produces an increase in Ca2+ concentration across the whole cell (not just locally) and is known as a whole cell Ca2+ transient. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • At the peak of stimulation, TEA produced increases in mEPSP rate that were linearly related to the shifts produced by the same TEA concentrations (0.1-3 mM) in hair cell V m (0.7-5 mV), with a slope of 29.8 Hz/mV. (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence of TPGS altered the membrane dipole potential, with results suggesting saturation of this effect at concentrations as low as 10 μg/ml. (arvojournals.org)
  • In HeLa cells, at low concentrations, the CPP nona-arginine (R9) enters cells by endocytosis. (ru.nl)
  • Direct membrane penetration occurs only at high peptide concentrations through a mechanism involving activation of sphingomyelinase which converts sphingomyelin into ceramide. (ru.nl)
  • In HEK cells, by comparison, R9 enters the cytoplasm through direct membrane permeation already at low concentrations. (ru.nl)
  • It is found in especially high concentrations within plant cells, and in a mixed diet, it is most highly concentrated in fruits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic concentrations of potassium in model organisms are: 30-300mM in E. coli, 300mM in budding yeast, 100mM in mammalian cell and 4mM in blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between the concentrations of these charged particles causes a difference in electric potential between the inside and outside of cells, known as the membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipophilic
  • P-gp activity was assessed using the lipophilic probe and P-gp substrate Calcein AM. Changes in membrane dipole potential were detected through wavelength ratiometric fluorescence measurements using the electrochromic probe Di-8-anepps. (arvojournals.org)
  • This turns the molecule into a structure with high binding affinity for polar and lipophilic structures (such as cell membranes and receptors) and makes it possible for the molecule to pass the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule (dye) intercalates among the lipophilic part of biological membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These voltage-sensitive dyes are lipophilic and preferably localized in membranes with their hydrophobic tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane
  • In support of this hypothesis, it has been shown that, properly applied, these various exogenic stimuli are capable of increasing transmembrane potential (TMP) to or toward an optimum value and energy level of a healthy cell. (rife.org)
  • Next to providing new insights into the interplay of membrane composition and direct permeation, these results also refute the long-standing paradigm that transmembrane potential is a driving force for CPP uptake. (ru.nl)
  • Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that can hinder cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slow-response probes: These exhibit potential-dependent changes in their transmembrane distribution which are accompanied by a fluoresence change. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • Closest to the visual field (and farthest from the brain) is the axon terminal, which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon hillock is the last site in the soma where membrane potentials propagated from synaptic inputs are summated before being transmitted to the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, it had been believed that the axon hillock was the usual site of action potential initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now thought that the earliest site of action potential initiation is found just adjacent, in the initial (unmyelinated) segment of the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon hillock has a number of specialized properties that make it capable of action potential generation, including adjacency to the axon and a much higher density of voltage-gated ion channels than is found in the rest of the cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In electrophysiological models, the axon hillock is included with the initial segment of the axon where membrane potentials propagated from synaptic inputs to the dendrites or cell body are summed. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are summed in the axon hillock and once a triggering threshold is exceeded, an action potential propagates through the rest of the axon (and "backwards" towards the dendrites as seen in neural backpropagation). (wikipedia.org)
  • This initiates an action potential that then propagates down the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This undershoot phase ensures that the action potential propagates down the axon and not back up it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this initial action potential is initiated, principally at the axon hillock, it propagates down the length of the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure faster and more efficient propagation of action potentials, the axon is myelinated. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Located in the sarcolemma of smooth muscle cells are receptors, called dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR). (wikipedia.org)
  • These DHPRs are located directly opposite to the ryanodine receptors, located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum and activation, by the action potential causes the DHPRs to change shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are roughly 10,000 clusters of ryanodine receptors within a single cardiac cell, with each cluster containing around 100 ryanodine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • During evoked Ca2+ sparks, all clusters of ryanodine receptors, throughout the cell are activated at almost exactly the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • In these cells, nestin expression was reduced and the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2, a marker for neurons, was upregulated. (arvojournals.org)
  • Tissues
  • The Pappas Magnetic Induction Generator (MIG) developed by Panos T. Pappas (1992) represents the latest generation of advanced electro-therapeutic devices using high-frequency, pulsed, electric, magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields to non-invasively excite biological cells and tissues. (rife.org)
  • The term can also refer to the ability of living cells, tissues, and organisms to produce electrical fields and the response of cells to electromagnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium is necessary for the function of all living cells, and is thus present in all plant and animal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • However, each term specific to muscle cells has a counterpart that is used in the terminology applied to other types of cells: The sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • After 3weeks of the cultivation with neurobasal medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor, these cells extended neurite-like processes and showed network-formation. (arvojournals.org)
  • On close consideration of these factors, it becomes apparent that metabolic processes directly related to cell membrane potential (and its effect on the energy resources of the cell) may be the common link between these phenomena. (rife.org)
  • This shift from a negative to a more positive membrane potential occurs during several processes, including an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the first function is important for biochemical processes, the latter is crucial in defining the surface to volume ratio of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle contraction
  • The result of CICR across the cell causes the significant increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that is important in activating muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of cells to produce electrical discharge is critical for body functions such as neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and heart function. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • It appears that this observed phenomenon results from inducing an increase in characteristically low tumor cell membrane potential that inhibits mitosis and consequently causes cell death from aging and/or starvation. (rife.org)
  • transient
  • In experimenting with resonant circuits containing physical discontinuities over the past ten years (Pappas, 1990a/b) it was found that easily variable, transient, magnetic oscillations produced in the plasma vector of a shock-excited 'unclosed' circuit and applied non-invasively to or through body surfaces in localized areas, appeared to have unique effects on tumor cell reproduction and angiogenesis, resulting in their destruction. (rife.org)
  • bacterial
  • Flow cytometry and infrared spectroscopy were also performed on bacterial cells to get more insight into the cellular morphology and internal complexity. (diva-portal.org)
  • ATPases
  • E-ATPases are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyze a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-ATPases (sometime known as E1-E2 ATPases) are found in bacteria and also in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • This orientation assures that the excitation induced charge redistribution will occur parallel to the electric field within the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • CPPs
  • Noncovalent complexation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) using cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) has been less explored due to the relatively large complex size formed and the low-level gene expression. (ku.edu)
  • POPC) phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface are used as model cell membranes to monitor the membrane insertion potential of synthetic CPPs. (ku.edu)
  • Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are prominent delivery vehicles to confer cellular entry of (bio-) macromolecules. (ru.nl)
  • cardiac
  • If channels in cardiac pacemaker cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, CICR is thought to be crucial for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle and it is now obvious that CICR is a widely occurring cellular signaling process present even in many non-muscle cells, e.g. in the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells and many other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinal
  • There are currently three known types of photoreceptor cells in mammalian eyes: rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cone cells, there are different types of opsins that combine with retinal to form pigments called photopsins. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Thus, from an evolutionary point of view, anchoring into the membrane interface enables monotopic enzymes to confer sensitivity to a changing environment by regulating their activities in the lipid biosynthetic pathways in order to maintain a certain membrane homeostasis. (diva-portal.org)