• surfaces
  • Results from these studies will help to reveal the roles of regulatory T cells during various types of mucosal viral infections at different mucosal surfaces of the body, as well as the different roles that regulatory T cells could play at various phases of the immune response to viruses. (grantome.com)
  • Because an exposure of humans and animals to microbes occurs mostly through mucosal surfaces, targeting the mucosa seems a rational and efficient vaccination strategy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining mucosal barriers and contributing to pathogen clearance at mucosal surfaces, but they have also been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of Th17 cell populations at mucosal surfaces has been linked to chronic inflammation and microbial translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells can also be identified by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components expressed at the edge of cells or on their cell surfaces, such as actin, villin, cytokeratin, and vimentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • We expect that knowledge gained from this research program will assist in the generation of improved clinical interventions for mucosal viral infections, including vaccines. (grantome.com)
  • The proposed studies will assist in understanding the role that regulatory T cells play in HSV and influenza viral infections and disease progression, an important step in advancing the overall goal of finding new therapeutic targets for vaccines and treatments to combat mucosal viral infections. (grantome.com)
  • Our proposal will significantly advance our knowledge of anti-HIV-1 mucosal immune responses and identify adjuvants that can be used to generate vaccines for HIV-1 that elicit effective mucosal immunity. (grantome.com)
  • Therefore, there has been a pressing need for the development of new booster vaccines to enhance existing BCG-induced immunity. (ersjournals.com)
  • Given the mounting evidence supporting the safety and enhanced efficacy of respiratory mucosal immunisation over the traditional parenteral immunisation route, a greater effort should be made to clinically develop respiratory mucosal-deliverable TB vaccines. (ersjournals.com)
  • Therefore, the development of vaccines able to further accelerate and enhance existing BCG-mediated T-cell responses has been recognised as a priority in the field of TB vaccine development [ 6 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • The aims of this strategy can be to decrease the mass of latently infected CD4+ T cells, better tolerance of drug-free periods, and better select candidates for preventive HIV vaccines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For many diseases that lead to high mortality and morbidity, such as AIDS and malaria, it is likely that vaccines will need to elicit strong T cell-mediated immunity composed of IFN-γ secreting CD4 + helper and CD8 + cytolytic T lymphocytes (for reviews see references 1 - 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • More recently, his research group has shown the importance of the mucosal immune system in controlling HSV reactivation, leading to current momentum to try to develop novel vaccines for genital herpes. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • M cells expressing the complement C5a receptor are efficient targets for mucosal vaccine delivery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • IL-17A receptor A (IL-17RA) was first isolated and cloned from mouse EL4 thymoma cells and the bioactivity of IL-17A was confirmed by stimulating the transcriptional factor NF-kappa B activity and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 binds to a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization is possible if the N-linked glycosylation sites are removed in mutants of IL-22 bound with high-affinity cell-surface receptor sIL-22R1. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms cell surface complexes with IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 chains resulting in signal transduction through receptor, IL-10R2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout mice which genetically lack IL-7 receptor exhibit thymic atrophy, arrest of T-cell development at the double positive stage, and severe lymphopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, MAIT cells express high levels of CD161, interleukin-18 (IL-18) receptor, and chemokine receptors CCR5, CXCR6, and CCR6 on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key factors in the differentiation of Th17 cells are signal transducer and the activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors gamma (RORγ) and alpha (RORα). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular prion protein (PrP) is another example of a cell surface receptor on M cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, through loss-of-function and rescue-phenotype studies, RANKL is shown to be a receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and play a role in differentiation of M cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen recognition by T cells is a remarkable process dependent on the T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • These include a new lineage of cytoplasmic CD3+ lymphoid cells (TCR0 cells) and a T cell sublineage that expresses a different receptor isotypes (TCR3) generated exclusively in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells express a high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) for the Fc region of IgE, the least-abundant member of the antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • MICA is broadly recognized by NK cells, γδ T cells, and CD8+ αβ T cells which carry NKG2D receptor on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiate
  • Th17 cells infiltrate massively to the inflamed tissue of IBD patients and both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Th17-related cytokines may initiate and amplify multiple pro-inflammatory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-21, produced by Th17 cells themselves, has also been shown to initiate an alternative route for the activation of Th17 populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • This Keystone Symposia meeting will use diverse disciplines to promote further insights into the dynamic interplay between the virus and the host in areas of pathogenesis, mucosal biology, the roles of viral and host genes, and viral latency. (biotechsciencenews.com)
  • Although the exact cause of lupus is not fully known, it has been reported that IL-17 and Th17 cells are involved in disease pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] IL-7 is a cytokine important for B and T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) form a heterodimer that functions as a pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Knockout studies in mice suggested that this cytokine plays an essential role in lymphoid cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human study of IL-7 in patients with cancer demonstrated that administration of this cytokine can transiently disrupt the homeostasis of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with a commensurate decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to IL-12, MAIT cells produce and secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a cytokine that activate macrophages, assists in the maturation of dendritic cells, and promotes the expression of MHC class II on antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAIT cells also secrete IL-17, an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, after binding IL-23. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of mucosal candidiasis, the cells that produce cytokine IL-17 are extremely important in maintaining innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th3 cells have different cytokine requirements for their growth from CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Secondly, following up on work from our previous studies, we will characterize the mechanisms by which regulatory T cells modulate dendritic cell function during mucosal viral infections. (grantome.com)
  • Mucosal viral infections such as herpes and influenza pose a public health threat in the United States and worldwide. (grantome.com)
  • As mucosal exposure is the route via which the general population encounters the majority of common viruses that impact public health, the goal of this proposed research program is to better understand how regulatory T cells modulate immunity to mucosal viral infections. (grantome.com)
  • Although it is widely accepted that CD8+ memory T cells are critical in controlling intracellular infections and often provide protection from reinfection, it is unclear how mucosal priming affects the quality and migration of these long-lived effector cells. (grantome.com)
  • Type 2 immunity is involved in parasitic infections and allergic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in numerous health conditions such as: food allergies, microbial infections, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, and septic shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The adaptive immune response is stimulated when peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules bind to T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • ILC 3 consists of two cell types - LTi cells (lymphoid tissue-inducing cells) that are important to produce secondary lymphoid organs in embryogenesis and cells designated as NCR+ ILC 3 and NCR−ILC 3 depending on whether they express NCR receptors of NK cells capable of recognizing pathogenic molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, rather than undergoing selection on MHC class I or II molecules, MAIT cells interact with the MHC class I-like molecule, MR1, on thymocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vitamin B2 related molecules that activate MAIT cells are chemically unstable, and undergo spontaneous degradation in water, although they have now been successfully chemically synthesised and isolated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The known mechanisms associated with the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts involve the signaling molecules produced by immune-associated cells, as well as the direct cell to cell contact of osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of various molecules into the lumen reinforces the barrier function on the extra-epithelial side, while a variety of immune cells provide additional protection below the epithelial layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus consists of a highly glycosylated hydrated gel formed by mucin molecules that are secreted by goblet cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus prevents large particles from contacting the epithelial cell layer while allowing small molecules to pass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crucial for forming an effective barrier is the precise control of the paracellular pathway (a route for translocation of molecules between cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are a diverse array of molecules that kill bacteria and fungi, are secreted by Paneth cells into the lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal permeability is a measurement of intestinal mucosal barrier function and is defined as "the facility with which intestinal epithelium allows molecules to pass through by non-mediated passive diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invading C. neoformans cells may be killed by the release of oxidative and nitrosative molecules by these macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differentiation pathways, functional processes and molecules of T cells are highly conserved in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pattern of accessory molecules expressed by avian T cells resembles mammalian α/β T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on the variable regions of the IgE molecules bound to the mast cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that binding of two or more IgE molecules (cross-linking) is required to activate the mast cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of the intracellular domains of the cell-bound Fc receptors, which are associated with the cross-linked IgE molecules, causes a complex sequence of reactions inside the mast cell that lead to its activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • Respiratory mucosal immunisation empowers T-cells to home to both the lung interstitium and the airway lumen, whereas intramuscular immunisation-activated T-cells are largely trapped within the pulmonary vasculature, unable to populate the lung interstitium and airway. (ersjournals.com)
  • Tuft cells, sometimes referred to as brush cells, are chemosensory cells in the epithelial lining of the intestines and respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuft cells are found in the intestine, pancreas and the respiratory tract, from nose to alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the avian respiratory system, there are heterophils, which are an important part of bird immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Additionally, recent work has highlighted the importance of regulatory T cells in immunity to infectious disease. (grantome.com)
  • The prevention and treatment of prevalent infectious diseases and tumors should benefit from improvements in the induction of antigen-specific T cell immunity. (rupress.org)
  • M cells are exploited by several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as infectious prions, such as in bovine spongiform encephalitis (Mad-cow disease), as a way of penetrating the intestinal epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus
  • Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus have been known to occasionally cause moderate-to-severe disease in human patients with compromised immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemically
  • Unexpectedly, the αDEC-205 antigen conjugates, given s.c., targeted to dendritic cells systemically and for long periods, and ovalbumin peptide was presented on MHC class I for 2 weeks. (rupress.org)
  • regulatory
  • Therefore, this unexpected finding of an immune response-promoting function of regulatory T cells has subsequently led to several new lines of work that will be addressed in this proposal. (grantome.com)
  • They are related to T regulatory cells and the signals that cause Th17s to differentiate actually inhibit Treg differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation
  • Th17 cells is also strongly associated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic disorder with symptoms include chronic joint inflammation, autoantibody production, which lead to the destruction of cartilage and bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells mediate the regression of tumors in mice, but were also found to promote tumor formation induced by colonic inflammation in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dysregulation of Th17 cells has been associated with autoimmune disorders and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of autoimmune disorders, Th17 cell over activation can cause an inappropriate amount of inflammation, like in the case of rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated T helper cells such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 are found in the synovial cavity during the time of inflammation due to rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • reinfection
  • Furthermore, it remains to be determined whether CD8+ memory cells can protect the mucosa from reinfection. (grantome.com)
  • Second, we will employ adoptive transfer of CD8+ memory T cell subsets, in vivo antibody treatments and genetic manipulation of T. gondii to identify the mechanisms that protect the mucosa from reinfection. (grantome.com)
  • mucosa
  • Microfold cells (or M cells) are found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine, and in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunization
  • Therapeutic immunization in HIV aims to strengthen the HIV-specific cellular immunity, usually in the absence of replicating HIV with antiretroviral drugs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Investigation of lectinized liposomes as M-cell targeted carrier-adjuvant for mucosal immunization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In parallel, naive mice develop immunity, including CD8 + T cell-mediated immunity, which is considerably enhanced relative to prior methods of immunization with 1,000-fold higher doses of antigen and is associated with stronger protection in anti-viral and anti-tumor models. (rupress.org)
  • antibodies
  • Antibody libraries analysis confirmed the anti-TG2 antibodies mucosal production in all ( n = 8) positive subjects. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, complement serum proteins, which are a part of the innate immune system, work with antibodies to lyse target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains a large number of plasma cells and is the main secretory body of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediators
  • The Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Th17 cells and IL-17 have also been linked to Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, MAIT cells are thought to play a role in autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Transfer of CD4+ T cells from immune mice provided heterologous protection against pneumonia, and this protection was abrogated by interleukin-17A (IL-17A) blockade. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • Transfer of memory CD4+ T cells from IL-17A-knockout mice failed to provide protection. (vanopijnenlab.com)
  • We followed the consequences of DEC-205 antigen targeting in naive mice with a polyclonal T cell repertoire. (rupress.org)
  • Administration of IL-7 to mice results in an increase in recent thymic emigrants, increases in B and T cells, and increased recovery of T cells after cyclophosphamide administration or after bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This thymic development process is found in both mice and human MAIT cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Structures of T cell receptors (TCRs) in complex with peptide-MHC class I ligands have been determined. (sciencemag.org)
  • MAIT cells were initially specified as T cells that do not express the TCR co-receptors CD4 or CD8 on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mast cells can be stimulated to degranulate by allergens through cross-linking with immunoglobulin E receptors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestine
  • In the intestine, tuft cells are the sole source of secreted interleukin 25 (IL-25). (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing Th17 cell populations in the intestine has been shown to be both an effective treatment as well as possibly preventative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike their neighbor cells, M cells have the unique ability to take up antigen from the lumen of the small intestine via endocytosis, phagocytosis, or transcytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • maturation
  • Publications] Yonezawa A.: 'Natural Alpha Interferon-Producing Cells Respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 with Alpha Interferon Production and Maturation into Dendritic Cells'J.Virol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • citation needed] It is important for proliferation during certain stages of B-cell maturation, T and NK cell survival, development and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cells undergo the differentiation process for up to four days before reaching full maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bursa of Fabricius is an organ that is unique to birds and is the only site for B cell differentiation and maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • LTi cells are important in the origin and development of secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that differentiation and signalling of LTi cells are dependent on retinoic acid (a component of vitamin A). The uptake of retinoic acid in the diet by the mother directly affects the development of LTi cells and the size of the secondary lymphoid organs of the fetus, which may have an effect at its later age Spits, Hergen, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17
  • IL-17A producing T helper cells (Th17 cells) are a distinct lineage from the Th1 and Th2 CD4+ lineages and the differentiation of Th17 cells requires STAT3 and RORC. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have historically been associated with the discovery of Th17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, elevated expression of IL-17A in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions as well as peripheral blood has been documented before the identification of Th17 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the finding of IL-17-producing cells as well as IL17A transcripts in the lesions of psoriatic patients suggested that Th17 cells may synergize with Th1 cells in driving the pathology in psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in the coordinated response of both adaptive innate immune systems, autoimmunity and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenic Th17 cells are induced by IL-23 and IL-1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells are involved in B cell recruitment through CXCL13 chemokine signaling, and Th17 activity may encourage antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells have also been shown to be necessary for maintenance of mucosal immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells, particularly auto-specific Th17 cells, are associated with autoimmune disease such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has been suggested that Th17 can also play a more major role in osteoclast differentiation via cell to cell contact with osteoclast precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th17 cells may contribute to the development of late phase asthmatic response due to its increases in gene expression relative to Treg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • IL-7 is a hematopoietic growth factor secreted by stromal cells in the bone marrow and thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils leave the bone marrow already mature, whereas the mast cell circulates in an immature form, only maturing once in a tissue site. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-specific
  • However, parenteral intramuscular immunisation is unable to provide protection despite the apparent presence of antigen-specific T-cells in the lung interstitium. (ersjournals.com)
  • human NK-22 cells
  • We are uniquely positioned to successfully address these aims because of our original discovery of human NK-22 cells, our broad expertise in NK cell biology, the strength of our preliminary data, the relatively straightforward experiments that we have chosen and the availability of reagents through our collaboration with the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI). (grantome.com)
  • Expansion of human NK-22 cells with IL-7, IL-2, and IL-1β reveals intrinsic functional plasticity. (wikipedia.org)