• Fibres
  • The plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substances of the cell walls and separate the fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Walls
  • The major goal of our project that is carried out in collaboration with the labs of Dr. Curt Wilkerson and Dr. Ken Keegstra at MSU is to understand the process and regulation of hemicellulose biosynthesis in sufficient detail that the resulting information can be used to manipulate the levels and composition of hemicellulose in the cell walls of biofuel crops. (msu.edu)
  • The thick cell walls of phloem fibers consist of cellulose and hemicelluloses. (msu.edu)
  • These polymers are deposited predominantly in the walls of secondarily thickened cells, making them rigid and impervious. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast to plants and the oomycetes, fungal cell walls do not contain cellulose. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • These groups developed extremely efficient biochemical mechanisms to disassemble cell walls and use the products of hydrolysis for growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In legumes, the main function of the endosperm cell walls appears to be storage, with the yield of galactomannan reaching more than 30% of the seed dry weight in many species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Some bacteria living in the gut of cattle, horses and other herbivores secrete cellulase, an enzyme that helps in the digestion of the cellulose of plant cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be divided into three types based on the nature of the cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1)Parenchyma cells have thin primary walls and usually remain alive after they become mature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenchyma forms the "filler" tissue in the soft parts of plants.usually present in cortex, pericycle, pith,and medullary rays in primary stem and root.2) Collenchyma cells have thin primary walls with some areas of secondary thickening. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3)Sclerenchyma cells have thick lignified secondary walls and often die when mature. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have thin but flexible cellulose cell walls, and are generally polyhedral when close-packed, but can be roughly spherical when isolated from their neighbours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complaining about Link's excessive nomenclature, Schleiden (1839) stated mockingly that the term "collenchyma" could have more easily been used to describe elongated sub-epidermal cells with unevenly thickened cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collenchyma tissue is composed of elongated cells with irregularly thickened walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four main types of collenchyma: Angular collenchyma (thickened at intercellular contact points) Tangential collenchyma (cells arranged into ordered rows and thickened at the tangential face of the cell wall) Annular collenchyma (uniformly thickened cell walls) Lacunar collenchyma (collenchyma with intercellular spaces) Collenchyma cells are most often found adjacent to outer growing tissues such as the vascular cambium and are known for increasing structural support and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • It has residual activity in soils, allowing it to be used infrequently but requiring up to 22 months before planting certain crops (sunflowers, flax, corn, or safflower). (wikipedia.org)
  • Holmes
  • Thirty years after Kemp's experimental proof of the existence of Gold's cochlear amplifier and sixty years after the proposal of Gold's cochlear amplifier, the active-compression-wave cochlear amplifier was defined by M.R. Flax and W.H. Holmes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This original OHC compression model was taken further to explain a 'mixed mode' cochlear amplifier in 2011, where the apex and base of the cochlea are modelled by the same system proposed by Flax and Holmes, however experimentally capture different modes of stimulation as proposed by Guinan. (wikipedia.org)
  • roots
  • The formation of adventitious roots involves the process of redifferentiation, in which predetermined cells switch from their morphogenetic path to act as mother cells for the root primordia (Friedman et al. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Microscopy of flax roots showed intracellular displacement of amyloplasts in columella cells due to magnetophoresis. (springer.com)
  • It is a systemic compound with foliar and soil activity, that inhibits cell division in shoots and roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Storage of starch, protein, fats, oils and water in roots, tubers (e.g. potatoes), seed endosperm (e.g. cereals) and cotyledons (e.g. pulses and peanuts) Secretion (e.g. the parenchyma cells lining the inside of resin ducts) Wound repair and the potential for renewed meristematic activity Other specialised functions such as aeration (aerenchyma) provides buoyancy and helps aquatic plants in floating. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Bright field image of cross section of flax stem. (msu.edu)
  • 6. The method of claim 4 , wherein said pluripotent cells are embryonic stem cells. (google.com)
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells may be a tissue/cell source for developing the therapeutic potential of neural transplantation. (google.com)
  • Self-renewing and multipotent stem cells provide a source of transplantable material to replace post-mitotic neurons that do not spontaneously regenerate after injury. (google.com)
  • They support the conductive cells of the phloem and provide strength to the stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • shapes of parenchyma 1= polyhedral[these cells are most poly hedral shape] 2=stellate (found in stem of plants and have well developed air spaces between them) 3=elongated(are found in pallisade tissue of leaf) 4=lobed (are found inspongy and pallisade mesophyyll tissue of some plants) The first use of "collenchyma" (/kəˈlɛŋkɪmə, kɒ-/) was by Link (1837) who used it to describe the sticky substance on Bletia (Orchidaceae) pollen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Component
  • Disclosed herein are methods for generating dopaminergic neurons in vitro by inhibiting a pathway component of a TGF-β signaling pathway and overexpressing one or more cell fate-inducing polypeptides in pluripotent cells, causing differentiation of the pluripotent cells into dopaminergic neurons. (google.com)
  • The main component of the cochlear amplifier is the outer hair cell (OHC) which increases the amplitude and frequency selectivity of sound vibrations using electromechanical feedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In Niemann-Pick type C, the protein product of the major mutated gene NPC1 is not an enzyme but appears to function as a transporter in the endosomal-lysosomal system, which moves large water-insoluble molecules through the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein coded by the NPC2 gene more closely resembles an enzyme structurally but seems to act in cooperation with the NPC1 protein in transporting molecules in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. (edu.au)
  • bind
  • 11. The method of claim 1 , wherein said Smad4 is inhibited by contacting said pluripotent cells with antibodies that specifically bind to Smad4. (google.com)
  • system
  • The structure of AvrM and the identification of functionally important surface regions advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying how effectors enter plant cells and how they are detected by the plant immune system. (edu.au)
  • Basic concepts for the development of biotechnological system for anthocyanins production based on grape cell suspension culture. (intechopen.com)
  • These cells, along with the epidermal guard cells of the stoma, form a system of air spaces and chambers that regulate the exchange of gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 Dow AgroSciences received USDA approval to market a vaccine for poultry against Newcastle disease, produced in plant cell culture - the first plant-produced vaccine approved in the U.S. Milk is presently the most mature system to produce recombinant proteins from transgenic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Tissue specialised for food storage is commonly formed of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some works the cells of the leaf epidermis are regarded as specialised parenchymal cells, but the modern preference has long been to classify the epidermis as plant dermal tissue, and parenchyma as ground tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Most fungi grow as thread-like filaments called hyphae , which form a mycelium , while others grow as single cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • organisms
  • This apical growth form is shared with the morphologically similar oomycetes and in contrast with other filamentous organisms, like filamentous green algae, which grow by repeated cell divisions within a chain of cells (intercalary growth). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • gene
  • This vector is a DNA vehicle, which transfers the DFR gene fragment (called transgene) into muscadine grape cells following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (intechopen.com)
  • immune
  • While gluten is also the causative agent of celiac disease (CD), celiac disease can be contrasted to gluten allergy by the involvement of different immune cells and antibody types (See Comparative pathophysiology of gluten sensitivities), and because the list of allergens extend beyond the classic gluten category of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein said pluripotent cells are human pluripotent cells. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 , wherein said pluripotent cells are mouse, rat, porcine, or non-human primate pluripotent cells. (google.com)
  • Holly Flax is the human resources representative for the Scranton branch of Dunder Mifflin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enough
  • A sudden long temperature increase could cause damage to the plant because their cells and receptors haven't had enough time to prepare for a major temperature change. (wikipedia.org)
  • easily
  • Fibrous peels and lignified core of flax can easily be separated by hand (B). (msu.edu)
  • potential
  • The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation (or GHK flux equation or GHK current density equation) describes the ionic flux across a cell membrane as a function of the transmembrane potential and the concentrations of the ion inside and outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The somatic motor is the OHC cell body and its ability to elongate or contract longitudinally due to changes in membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The transgene integrates into the endogenous DNA of muscadine cells for expression. (intechopen.com)
  • ii) introducing said polynucleotide into said pluripotent cells under conditions suitable for expression of said polynucleotide. (google.com)
  • directly
  • These cells sit directly above a basilar membrane (BM) that has high sensitivity for differences in frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • Effects of the inoculum sizes (14 days old culture) on accumulated fresh weight (AFW) and packed cell volume (PCV) by M. rotundifolia var. (intechopen.com)
  • Noble" cell suspension culture cultivated in shaking flasks (250 ml/50 mL) for 18 days. (intechopen.com)