• Pseudomonas
  • The study experimented with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and found that a disruption of relA and spoT genes produced an inactivation of the Stringent response (SR) in cells with nutrient limitation, which provides cells be more susceptible to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Hsp70 mRNA expression was induced by pathogenic E. coli in Caco-2 cells, whereas no consistent effect could be measured in IPEC-J2 cells within the set time frame (10 h). (fu-berlin.de)
  • intestinal
  • Positive effects of probiotics on the barrier function of intestinal epithelia have been reported in various animal models or human cell culture studies. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 and the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 were used in parallel. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The colon, in contrast, contains a densely-populated microbial ecosystem with up to 1012 cells per gram of intestinal content. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The mammalian NK-lysin effector protein of T and natural killer cells has a similar structure, though it lacks sequence homology with bacteriocins AS-48. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to solve such a problem, phage viruses synthesize another protein called holin which binds to the cell membrane and makes holes in it (hence its name), allowing lysins to reach the peptidoglycan matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Some enterococci are intrinsically resistant to β-lactam-based antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems), as well as many aminoglycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its use by mouth or by injection is only recommended when safer antibiotics cannot be used and if used, monitoring both blood levels of the medication and blood cell levels every two days is recommended during treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Streptogramin resistance is mediated through enzymatic drug inactivation, efflux or active transport of drug out of the cell, and most commonly, conformational alterations in ribosomal target binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance is due to a chromosomal gene, vanC, which encodes for a terminal D-alanine-D-serine instead of the usual D-alanine-D-alanine in cell wall peptidoglycan precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the catalytic domain, the cell-binding domain is variable, which allows a great specificity and decreases bacterial resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • streptococci
  • Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Enterococci are facultative anaerobic organisms, i.e., they are capable of cellular respiration in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • wall
  • Copsin is an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis by binding to Lipid II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wise EMJ, Park JT (1965) Penicillin: its basic site of action as an inhibitor of a peptide cross-linking reaction in the cell wall mucopeptide synthesis. (springer.com)
  • These have a wide range of effects on membrane permeability, cell wall formation and pheromone actions of target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysins, also known as endolysins or murein hydrolases, are hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages in order to cleave the host's cell wall during the final stage of the lytic cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-wall-containing Archaea are also lysed by specialized pseudomurein-cleaving lysins, while most archaeal viruses employ alternate mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-binding domain (CBD) binds to a specific substrate found in the host bacterium's cell wall, usually a carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lysin catalytic domain digests peptidoglycan locally at a high rate, which causes holes in the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the cross-linked peptidoglycan cell wall is the only mechanism that prevents the spontaneous burst of bacterial cells due to the high internal pressure (3 to 5 atmospheres), enzymatic digestion by lysins irreversibly causes hypotonic lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The work by Loessner et al suggests that cleavage is typically achieved by the joint action of multiple lysin molecules at a local region of the host's cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high binding affinity to the cell wall substrate (close to that of IgG for its substrate) of each lysin appear to be reason why multiple molecules are required, since every lysin binds so tightly to the cell wall that it can't break enough bonds to cause lysis by itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to reach the cell wall, phage lysins have to cross the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus we describe the case of a 9-year-old girl with chronic myelogenous leukemia status after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who developed severe pseudomembranous and obstructive AT, respiratory failure, and subsequent death despite multiple aggressive interventions. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, while the Δ mazEF cells die as a result of the lytic action of the phage, most of the mazEF + cells are killed by a different mechanism, apparently through the action of the chromosomal mazEF system itself. (springer.com)
  • These peptides act as pore-forming toxins that create cell membrane channels through a barrel-stave mechanism and thus produce an ionic imbalance in the cell Other class II bacteriocins can be grouped together as Class IIc (circular bacteriocins). (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Based on their hydropathy plots all SLC4 proteins are hypothesized to share a similar topology in the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • AE1, AE2, and NBCn1), (ii) is important for trafficking to the cell membrane (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class IIa bacteriocins are all cationic, display anti-Listeria activity, and kill target cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cationic N-terminal beta-sheet domain mediates binding of the class IIa bacteriocin to the target cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal region forms a hairpin-like domain that penetrates into the hydrophobic part of the target cell membrane, thereby mediating leakage through the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriocin AS-48 is encoded by the pheromone-responsive plasmid pMB2, and acts on the plasma membrane in which it opens pores leading to ion leakage and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptidoglycan
  • Lysins are highly evolved enzymes that are able to target one of the five bonds in peptidoglycan (murein), the main component of bacterial cell walls, which allows the release of progeny virions from the lysed cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic
  • We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with chronic myelogenous leukemia who developed respiratory distress 41 days after hematopoietic cell transplantation and rapidly deteriorated despite multiple interventions and treatment modalities. (hindawi.com)
  • proteins
  • localization of the high molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins during the cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • Their N-terminal hydrophilic domains may interact with cytoskeletal proteins and therefore play a cell structural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC4 proteins play roles in acid-base homeostasis, transport of H+ or HCO− 3 by epithelia (e.g. absorption of HCO− 3 in the renal proximal tubule, secretion of HCO− 3 in the pancreatic duct), as well as the regulation of cell volume and intracellular pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • oral
  • Oral supplements of E. faecium NCIM 5593 to ACR-treated mice improved neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress. (omicsonline.org)
  • units
  • It has been proposed that the main mechanism of evolution in phage lysins is the exchange of modular units, a process by which different catalytic and cell-binding domains have been swapped between lysins, which would have resulted in new combinations of both bacterial binding and catalytic specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Allsopp TE, Fazakerley JK (2000) Altruistic cell suicide and the specialized case of the virus-infected nervous system. (springer.com)
  • synthesis
  • The cells that are in the VBNC state are morphologically smaller, and demonstrate reduced nutrient transport, rate of respiration, and synthesis of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. (uu.nl)
  • The rate of flipping is sufficiently rapid to suggest that this AE1-catalyzed process is physiologically important in red blood cells and possibly in other animal tissues as well. (wikipedia.org)