• commonly
  • Background: Today, cells are commonly analyzed in ensembles, i.e. thousands of cells per sample, yielding results on the average response of the cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • History and trends in microsystem technology, various commonly used materials for device fabrication, and conventional methods for single-cell analysis are also discussed, before a closing section with a detailed example from our research in the field. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard cell culture media are commonly supplemented with animal serum (such as fetal bovine serum, FBS) as a source of nutrients and other ill-defined factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa cells are commonly used as eukaryotic cells in the gentamicin protection assay, but other cells can be used as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay is performed in polypropylene plates with round wells, which are commonly used in laboratories for culturing eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next the eukaryotic cells are lysed using a detergent, most commonly Triton X-100. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gentamicin protection assay is commonly used in pathogen research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the cell growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three of these isoenzymes (all homodimers) are more commonly found in adult human cells than the others: αα or non-neuronal enolase (NNE), which is found in a variety of tissues, including liver, brain, kidney, spleen, adipose. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1 and t(17;19), with HLF), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoid-specific expression of the Id3 gene in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myogenin is required for the proper differentiation of most myogenic precursor cells during the process of myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • A range of microwell-based chips are discussed with regard to their well characteristics, cell handling, choice of material etc. along with available detection systems for single-cell studies. (diva-portal.org)
  • 2015). "Use of Humanized Rat Basophilic Leukemia Reporter Cell Lines as a Diagnostic Tool for Detection of Allergen-Specific IgE in Allergic Patients: Time for a Reappraisal? (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • A chemist might not have experience at working with cell cultures or a physicist may have no idea how to make the gold colloid they need for calibrating an atomic force microscope. (chemtec.org)
  • Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of some derived from tumors, most primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • It has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically defined media also allows researchers who are studying in the field of cell physiology (especially extracellular) and or molecule-cell interactions to eliminate any variables that may arise due to the effects of unknown components in the medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology usually restricts the term "small molecule" to molecules that bind specific biological macromolecules and acts as an effector, altering the activity or function of the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, and plants, produce small molecule secondary metabolites also known as natural products, which play a role in cell signaling, pigmentation and in defense against predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-molecule anti-genomic therapeutics, or SMAT, refers to a biodefense technology that targets DNA signatures found in many biological warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The assay is based on several observations made in the 1970s, in which the ability of internalized bacteria to avoid killing by antibiotics was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • As for bacteria, only species susceptible to gentamicin can be assayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centrifuging the plates for a few minutes may help bring cells and bacteria in contact and initiate infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • After infection gentamicin is added to the plates, and they are incubated for an hour, allowing the antibiotic to kill all bacteria that were not able to penetrate the cells and remained outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria that penetrated the cells and remained alive are now released, and they are plated on solid medium plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gentamicin protection assay is very sensitive, as it can detect the internalization of even single bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internalized bacteria may sometimes not be entirely protected from the outside environment, such as when the phagosome (the vacuole surrounding the bacterium inside the cell) is defective in some way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gentamicin may fail to kill all the bacteria that remained outside the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When performing the assay as described above, bacteria that are known to be entirely invasive (positive control) and bacteria that are known as non-invasive (negative control) should be included in the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • IBA focusses on three business segments: cell selection, protein purification and oligo custom services. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bingham B.R., Monk P.N. and Helm B.A. (1994) Defective Protein Phosphorylation and Ca2+ Mobilization Linowa SecretingVariant of the Rat Basophilic Leukemia Cell Line. (wikipedia.org)
  • tools
  • Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cells require a surface or an artificial substrate (adherent or monolayer culture) whereas others can be grown free floating in culture medium (suspension culture). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral culture is also related, with cells as hosts for the viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell culture, myogenin can induce myogenesis in a variety of non-muscle cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic makeup
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • This technology is known as Fab-TACS (Traceless Affinity Cell Selection) and is based on Strep-tagged Fab fragments, which reversibly capture and release the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are cultured directly from a subject are known as primary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • General significance: In vitro assays offering low volume sampling and rapid analysis in a high-throughput manner are of great interest in a wide range of single-cell applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cao's research involves developing image processing algorithms toward applications in cell identification, biological assays, and biosensing. (hawaii.edu)
  • Isolated and purified cells are being deployed for basic research as well as diagnostic applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small molecules can have a variety of biological functions or applications, serving as cell signaling molecules, drugs in medicine, pesticides in farming, and in many other roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • 2012). "Anti-allergic activity of emodin on IgE-mediated activation in RBL-2H3 cells" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • PDF is found in cells of the M oscillators and regulates the anticipatory activity of flies prior to light exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fisetin has shown anti-cancer activity in studies on cells and model animals conducted in laboratories, and appears to block the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies conducted on cells in a laboratory, fisetin inhibits the activity of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and Nuclear factor kappa B. It has also been shown in lab studies to upregulate glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of the multidrug transporter in drug-resistant cells is associated with rapid cellular ATP depletion when ATP synthesis is inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • In lab studies it also has been shown to be an anti-proliferative agent, interfering with the cell cycle in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advantage of this variant is that several parallels are assayed in identical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Release of PDF, which is expressed by some of these specialized cells, is believed to be a primary output of oscillations within these cells, and it serves to coordinate and couple the morning and evening phases of fly behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • technology
  • The technology can be used with manual gravity flow columns as well as with the automated cell selection device FABian. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Burnet, independently of Medawar, came to the conclusion that the immune system must learn to tolerate any self cells, and hypothesized that this must occur during fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • light microscope
  • Counting of cells: positive responder cells could be counted from the front of migrating cells, after staining or in native conditions in light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another setting the chambers are connected side by side horizontally (Zigmond chamber) or as concentric rings on a slide (Dunn chamber) Concentration gradient develops on a narrow connecting bridge between the chambers and the number of migrating cells is also counted on the surface of the bridge by light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • techniques
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some capillary techniques provide also a chamber like arrangement, however, there is no filter between the cells and the test substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • RBL cells are used in allergy studies due to the strong response of the cells to IgE and its FcεRI receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • RBL cells can also be humanized, aiding in the specificity of allergy studies to human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Through carefully planned experimentation, the trio showed that mice exposed to cells of unrelated mice as fetuses did not reject skin grafts from those same mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnetic
  • IBA has developed an affinity chromatography system for non-magnetic isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T cells, B cells and other cells of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once fed magnetic nanoparticles, individual cells can be moved independently and simultaneously on a microarray of magnetic coils. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Too short incubation time results no cells in the sample, while too long time perturbs the concentration gradients and measures more chemokinetic than chemotactic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Its hormonal product, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), was named for the diurnal pigment movement effect it has in crustacean retinal cells upon its initial discovery in the central nervous system of arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • However, cellular heterogeneity implies the importance of studying how individual cells respond, one by one, in order to learn more about drug targeting and cellular behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • prevents
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • Counting of cells: positive responder cells are count from the lower chamber (long incubation time) or from the filter (short incubation time). (wikipedia.org)