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  • inhibitory
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Intracellular bacteria need to enter host cells (cells of the infected organism) in order to replicate and propagate infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype). (wikipedia.org)
  • probes
  • Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques, probes and assays with synthetic chemistry for the characterization of protein samples of high complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Varying mass-tags bind to different proteins as a sort of footprint such that when analyzing cells of differing perturbations, the levels of each protein can be compared relatively after enrichment by the introduced handle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contribution of specific genes or proteins to the bacteria's ability to invade cells can be easily assayed using this method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each method has its strengths and weaknesses but they all struggle with intrinsically disordered proteins without any clearly defined tertiary structure as the essence of a thermal shift assay is measuring the temperature at which a protein goes from well-defined structure to disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of therapeutic antibodies, many proteins are degraded if administered orally and most often cannot cross cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • E proteins and Notch signaling cooperate to promote T cell lineage specification and commitment Piskacek, S (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Background: Today, cells are commonly analyzed in ensembles, i.e. thousands of cells per sample, yielding results on the average response of the cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • History and trends in microsystem technology, various commonly used materials for device fabrication, and conventional methods for single-cell analysis are also discussed, before a closing section with a detailed example from our research in the field. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard cell culture media are commonly supplemented with animal serum (such as fetal bovine serum, FBS) as a source of nutrients and other ill-defined factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gentamicin protection assay is commonly used in pathogen research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the cell growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1 and t(17;19), with HLF), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoid-specific expression of the Id3 gene in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • ATP Binding Cassette or efflux transporters mediate the transport of substrates across cell membranes against a concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper molecular-weight limit for a small molecule is approximately 900 daltons, which allows for the possibility to rapidly diffuse across cell membranes so that it can reach intracellular sites of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Cao's research involves developing image processing algorithms toward applications in cell identification, biological assays, and biosensing. (hawaii.edu)
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) promotes the differentiation of Leydig cells and their production of androgens at week 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myogenin is required for the proper differentiation of most myogenic precursor cells during the process of myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • A chemist might not have experience at working with cell cultures or a physicist may have no idea how to make the gold colloid they need for calibrating an atomic force microscope. (chemtec.org)
  • Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of some derived from tumors, most primary cell cultures have limited lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Size compatibility between a cell and micron-sized tools has encouraged the field of micro- and nanotechnologies to move into areas such as life sciences and molecular biology. (diva-portal.org)
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Components
  • Chemically defined media also allows researchers who are studying in the field of cell physiology (especially extracellular) and or molecule-cell interactions to eliminate any variables that may arise due to the effects of unknown components in the medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • It has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology usually restricts the term "small molecule" to molecules that bind specific biological macromolecules and acts as an effector, altering the activity or function of the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, and plants, produce small molecule secondary metabolites also known as natural products, which play a role in cell signaling, pigmentation and in defense against predation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-molecule anti-genomic therapeutics, or SMAT, refers to a biodefense technology that targets DNA signatures found in many biological warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • Mycoplasma bacterial infections greatly affects the cell mediator release for biological assays, therefore regular Mycoplasma tests need to be performed since the bacteria colonizes the cell surface and cannot be visualized through a light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase assays can therefore have the potential for determining whether a compound acts as a transporter substrate and/or inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • Like the other compounds, it has also been shown to be reactive in many different assays of biological activities, raising the possibility that any drug generated from fisetin would have too many side effects to be useful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial arrangement of PP-technique (3 or more channels) provides the possibility to compare chemotactic activity of different cell populations or study preference between ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • migrate
  • At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the gonads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can migrate towards the chemical gradient in the semi solid layer or under the layer as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The assay is based on several observations made in the 1970s, in which the ability of internalized bacteria to avoid killing by antibiotics was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centrifuging the plates for a few minutes may help bring cells and bacteria in contact and initiate infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • After infection gentamicin is added to the plates, and they are incubated for an hour, allowing the antibiotic to kill all bacteria that were not able to penetrate the cells and remained outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria that penetrated the cells and remained alive are now released, and they are plated on solid medium plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gentamicin protection assay is very sensitive, as it can detect the internalization of even single bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internalized bacteria may sometimes not be entirely protected from the outside environment, such as when the phagosome (the vacuole surrounding the bacterium inside the cell) is defective in some way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gentamicin may fail to kill all the bacteria that remained outside the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When performing the assay as described above, bacteria that are known to be entirely invasive (positive control) and bacteria that are known as non-invasive (negative control) should be included in the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • In studies conducted on cells in a laboratory, fisetin inhibits the activity of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and Nuclear factor kappa B. It has also been shown in lab studies to upregulate glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • IBA focusses on three business segments: cell selection, protein purification and oligo custom services. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bingham B.R., Monk P.N. and Helm B.A. (1994) Defective Protein Phosphorylation and Ca2+ Mobilization Linowa SecretingVariant of the Rat Basophilic Leukemia Cell Line. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratories
  • Fisetin has shown anti-cancer activity in studies on cells and model animals conducted in laboratories, and appears to block the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • Scope of review: This review discusses general aspects on miniaturization of biological assays and in particular summarizes single-cell assays in microwell formats. (diva-portal.org)
  • To help assess the accuracy of a particular assay, positive and negative controls should be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous cell lines are well established as representative of particular cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Culture conditions vary widely for each cell type, and variation of conditions for a particular cell type can result in different phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The ATPase assays are used in two different modes: ATPase activation and ATPase inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then the peg is twisted and the cells get contact with two other containers filled with different substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • tools
  • Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • culture
  • Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cells require a surface or an artificial substrate (adherent or monolayer culture) whereas others can be grown free floating in culture medium (suspension culture). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral culture is also related, with cells as hosts for the viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell culture, myogenin can induce myogenesis in a variety of non-muscle cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • General significance: In vitro assays offering low volume sampling and rapid analysis in a high-throughput manner are of great interest in a wide range of single-cell applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • Isolated and purified cells are being deployed for basic research as well as diagnostic applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small molecules can have a variety of biological functions or applications, serving as cell signaling molecules, drugs in medicine, pesticides in farming, and in many other roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Too short incubation time results no cells in the sample, while too long time perturbs the concentration gradients and measures more chemokinetic than chemotactic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • 2012). "Anti-allergic activity of emodin on IgE-mediated activation in RBL-2H3 cells" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • PDF is found in cells of the M oscillators and regulates the anticipatory activity of flies prior to light exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of the multidrug transporter in drug-resistant cells is associated with rapid cellular ATP depletion when ATP synthesis is inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • In lab studies it also has been shown to be an anti-proliferative agent, interfering with the cell cycle in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advantage of this variant is that several parallels are assayed in identical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Its hormonal product, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), was named for the diurnal pigment movement effect it has in crustacean retinal cells upon its initial discovery in the central nervous system of arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • This technology is known as Fab-TACS (Traceless Affinity Cell Selection) and is based on Strep-tagged Fab fragments, which reversibly capture and release the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that are cultured directly from a subject are known as primary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Release of PDF, which is expressed by some of these specialized cells, is believed to be a primary output of oscillations within these cells, and it serves to coordinate and couple the morning and evening phases of fly behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer biological questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus reading of an assay may be quite noisy and may involve greater difficulties in interpretation than an accurate chemical titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • The thermofluor assay was the first high-throughput thermal shift assay and its utility and limitations has spurred the invention of a plethora of alternate methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • technology
  • The technology can be used with manual gravity flow columns as well as with the automated cell selection device FABian. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Burnet, independently of Medawar, came to the conclusion that the immune system must learn to tolerate any self cells, and hypothesized that this must occur during fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by week 8 of human fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • light microscope
  • Counting of cells: positive responder cells could be counted from the front of migrating cells, after staining or in native conditions in light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another setting the chambers are connected side by side horizontally (Zigmond chamber) or as concentric rings on a slide (Dunn chamber) Concentration gradient develops on a narrow connecting bridge between the chambers and the number of migrating cells is also counted on the surface of the bridge by light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • However, cellular heterogeneity implies the importance of studying how individual cells respond, one by one, in order to learn more about drug targeting and cellular behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • level
  • Biohazard safety to level II lab standards and the disposal of biological waste. (chemtec.org)
  • Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, forensic and many other businesses at various scales from industrial to curbside or field level. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • For assay of currency coins, this literally meant analysis of the purity of the gold or silver or whatever precious component was used to represent the true value of the coin. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • Small wells are cut into the layer and filled with cells and the test substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motile cells are placed into the upper chamber, while fluid containing the test substance is filled into the lower one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some capillary techniques provide also a chamber like arrangement, however, there is no filter between the cells and the test substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In another semiquantitative technique cells are overlaid the test substance and changes in opalescence of the originally cell-free compartment is recorded during the incubation time. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • RBL cells are used in allergy studies due to the strong response of the cells to IgE and its FcεRI receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • RBL cells can also be humanized, aiding in the specificity of allergy studies to human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Through carefully planned experimentation, the trio showed that mice exposed to cells of unrelated mice as fetuses did not reject skin grafts from those same mice. (wikipedia.org)