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  • antigenic
  • Cells such as genetically modified cells, e.g., hybridoma, which secrete an antigenic substance are encapsulated within capsule membranes having pores of dimensions sufficient to permit efflux of the antigens secreted by the cells but insufficient to permit traverse of the cells. (google.com)
  • inhibits
  • An antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a sequence in I.gamma.2b Increase .gamma.2b germline transcrips, stimulates B cell DNA synthesis, and inhibits immunoglobulin secretion, The Journal of Experimental Medicine 175:597-607 (1992). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The first population is CD25 − /FOXP3 − and does not proliferate, whereas the second CD25 + /FOXP3 + population proliferates and inhibits the effector function of peptide stimulated naive T cells ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • allogeneic
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a standard treatment for a variety of hematologic conditions. (stanford.edu)
  • mast
  • For example, IgE is responsible for an allergic response consisting of mast cell degranulation and histamine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • The first step in the process is initiation, which require exposure of normal cells to carcinogenic substances. (blogspot.com)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • An understanding of why a T cell-mediated immune response is not elicited but suppressed in vivo is essential for the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at optimizing the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy in these diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • particular
  • In particular, the present invention provides benzodiazepine derivatives and methods of using benzodiazepine derivatives as therapeutic agents to treat a number of conditions associated with the faulty regulation of the processes of programmed cell death, autoimmunity, inflammation, and hyperproliferation, and the like. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • approaches
  • Current technologies are not practical for this demanding task, but cell-free approaches are rapid and inexpensive. (stanford.edu)
  • therapeutic
  • Rescue fusion hybridization is a process used to manufacture some therapeutic cancer vaccines in which individual tumor cells obtained through biopsy are fused with an antibody-secreting cell to form a heterohybridoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole
  • The power and versatility of cell-free methods coupled with careful evaluation and engineering of these new systems enables a whole new range of applications and scientific investigation. (stanford.edu)
  • All the differentiated cells within such a neoplasm produce the same whole immunoglobulin chain or chain fragment. (wordpress.com)
  • known
  • During the second phase known as promotion, carcinogens or other factors alter the environment to favour the growth of the mutated cell population. (blogspot.com)
  • express
  • Such cells can express clonogenic or colony forming capability. (blogspot.com)
  • The first task is to develop an oxygen tolerant hydrogenase using cell-free technology to express libraries of mutated enzymes that can be rapidly screened for improved function. (stanford.edu)
  • autoimmunity
  • However, the factors driving autoimmunity and leading to the differentiation of autoreactive lymphocytes into autoantibody-producing plasma cells remain largely unknown, although several epitope mapping studies have suggested that autoimmunity in pSS is driven by autoantigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of importance, new information has made it possible to distinguish between the contribution played by abnormalities in central checkpoints that could lead to a pre-immune repertoire enriched in autoreactive B cells, on the one hand, and the possibility that autoimmunity arises in the periphery from somatic hypermutation and abnormal selection during T cell-dependent B-cell responses on the other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is an intriguing possibility that apoptotic material bound to the surface of follicular dendritic cells positively selects autoreactive B cells that arise from non-autoreactive B-cell precursors as a result of somatic hypermutation and thereby promotes the peripheral emergence of autoimmunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • peptide
  • Carboxypeptidases are proteases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds at the carboxy-terminal end of a chain of amino acids and have been identified in a wide variety of cell types and animals. (google.com)
  • Abnormalities
  • The available data from these models, therefore, suggest that abnormalities of B-cell activation or clearance of apoptotic material of a variety of sorts (or both) may be the defining molecular pathways in human SLE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditionally, serologic evaluation has been used to delineate immunologic abnormalities in SLE, but it has also been known for many years that both mice and humans with SLE typically show evidence of polyclonal B-cell hyper-reactivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional insights have been derived from an analysis of the impact of certain therapies on clinical disease activity as well as their effects on abnormalities of B-cell subsets in SLE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • monoclonal antibody
  • Once cloned, cell lines can be maintained continuously to produce an unlimited homogeneous monoclonal antibody population that can be isolated and/or purified and used clinically for in vitro immunohistological, immuno-cytological or immuno-serological diagnosis, in vivo diagnosis by localization of tumors and metastases, and immunotherapy of human cancers, particularly those of the prostate. (google.com)
  • tumor cells
  • Finally, a third potential mode of operation is through the delivery of toxic payloads (chemical or radioactive) directly to tumor cells (McCombs and Owen 2015). (deepdyve.com)
  • Rescue fusion hybridization is a process used to manufacture some therapeutic cancer vaccines in which individual tumor cells obtained through biopsy are fused with an antibody-secreting cell to form a heterohybridoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • germinal center
  • Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell clusters resembling germinal center (GC)-like structures have been reported in the focal lymphocytic sialadenitis of the minor (labial) salivary glands in patients with pSS [ 4 ], although it is not known whether they function completely as lymphoid GCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors may lead to known B-cell hyperactivity as a result of enhanced germinal center reactions with defects in selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombinant
  • 4. Recombinant cell or organism modified by a vector as claimed in claim 3. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A modified NS0 cell that has been adapted to grow in serum- and cholesterol-free media and that is engineered to express a recombinant protein, said cell being capable of achieving a volumetric productivity exceeding 100 mg/L/day recombinant protein in a culture of 100 L in a 10-day fed-batch process when grown in serum- and cholesterol-free media. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • processes
  • The autoantigens are organ and cell-specific, and in some cases surgical removal of the neoplasm has resulted in amelioration of immune-mediated paraneoplasia.2,14-18 Gammaglobulin treatment is reported to have beneficial results in some through processes that include anti-idiotype immunomodulation.19 Plasmapheresis and immuno- suppression may provide symptomatic relief in others,3,6,15,20 but no single immunomodulation is universally successful. (redorbit.com)
  • Further, the present invention also relates to processes of identifying compounds that modulate, i.e., act as agonists or antagonists, of NHP expression and/or NHP product activity that utilize purified preparations of the described NHPs and/or NHP product, or cells expressing the same. (google.com)
  • cytokines
  • Indeed, the mechanism of glandular damage remains incompletely delineated, although a role for CD4 + T cells has been proposed, either directly or through the action of secreted cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogenesis
  • Because disordered selection leads to considerable differences in the B cell repertoire in these patients, the delineation of its nature should provide important further clues to the pathogenesis of this autoimmune inflammatory disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • differentiate
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell may stay in this state for several days, and then either die or irrevocably differentiate into a mature, fully differentiated plasma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffuse
  • Most of these murine models of lupus, however, are associated with diffuse B-cell hyperactivity or defects in the clearance of apoptotic material or both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disorders
  • Hence, primary hemostatic disorders are characterized by prolonged bleeding time, and the characteristic physical examination findings are petechiae and purpura. (medscape.com)
  • region
  • Plasma cell with distinct clear perinuclear region of the cytoplasm containing a large number of Golgi bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • sufficient
  • Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated (humoral) immunity before there is sufficient IgG. (amazonaws.com)
  • subsequent
  • The characteristic hallmarks of pSS are focal lymphocytic infiltrates and subsequent destruction of the lacrimal and salivary glands, resulting in keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • role
  • All of these new data on human lupus, informed by advances in the study of murine lupus, have enhanced our understanding of the pathogenic role of B cells in SLE and also provided new information on the identification of potential therapeutic targets in this autoimmune disease. (biomedcentral.com)