• mediates
  • Instead they possess a DHR2 domain which mediates G protein activation by stabilising it in its nucleotide free state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dock4 also contains a DHR2 domain (also known as Docker2 or CZH2) which is conserved among DOCK family proteins and mediates GEF-dependent functions, and a DHR1 domain (CZH1/Docker1) which has been shown to bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an important step in recruitment to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • We then compared the samples of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic WM and showed similar protein expression signatures, indicating that the dysregulation of signaling pathways occurs early in the disease course. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this review, we describe detailed mechanisms of signal transduction pathways of Ang II involving small G proteins in VSMCs together with their functional significances in mediating vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Combined with biochemical analysis of the proteins in MAPK signal relay systems, our studies define the role of MAPK pathways in the integrated response of cells to different stimuli and their physiological function in tissues and organs. (unc.edu)
  • Growth control and apoptosis in mammalian cells are highly regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), which, upon ligand-dependent activation, launch the activation of a series of downstream signal transduction pathways, including MAPKs and the cell survival-promoting protein kinase B (Akt) ( 33 , 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • These results suggest that Ste20p is regulated in different developmental pathways by different mechanisms which involve heterotrimeric and small GTP binding proteins. (embopress.org)
  • Activated G proteins are able to couple to multiple downstream effectors and can therefore control a number of distinct signalling pathways (a characteristic known as pleiotropy). (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPases
  • The principal attention is paid to Rop mG-proteins, unique small GTPases of eukaryotic cells functioning during various developmental stages of plants, from pollen tube and root hair growth to plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. (deepdyve.com)
  • gene
  • However, gene expression profiling determines the level of mRNA in the samples and controls, and changes in mRNA levels do not always translate into changes at the protein level ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 3q29 that encodes a PAK protein of the serine/threonine p21-activating kinase family, which serve as targets for the small GTP-binding proteins Cdc42 and RAC and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human PAK1 gene is 153-kb long and consists of 23 exons, six exons for 5'-UTR and 17 exons for protein coding (Gene from review). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the human PAK1, murine PAK1 gene generates five transcripts: three protein-coding from 508-bp to 3.0-kb long, and two transcripts of about 900-bp for non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a screen for viable mutations affecting adult central brain structures, the mushroom bodies tiny ( mbt ) gene of Drosophila, which encodes a protein related to p21-activated kinase (PAK), has been isolated. (sdbonline.org)
  • Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is predicted to function as the lytic protein that facilitates release since TcdA and TcdB lack a signal peptide for secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGDIA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimerin 1, (CHN1) also known as alpha-1-chimerin, n-chimerin is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CHN1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ras-related protein Ral-A (RalA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RALA gene on chromosome 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Specifically, activation of ras leads to phosphorylation and activation of extracellular receptor-activated kinase (ERK), which has been linked biologically to growth and differentiation processes, whereas stimulation of rac/cdc42 leads to an increase in the activity of JNK and p38, a response that is associated with stress and apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • PAK proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. (thermofisher.com)
  • Even within one cell the cytoskeleton can change through association with other proteins and the previous history of the network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dock4 dependent Rac activation regulates reorganisation of the cytoskeleton and leads to the formation of membrane protrusions (e.g. lamellipodia) which are a crucial step in neuronal development and cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Moshkov, I. 2007-11-07 00:00:00 The control of plant growth, differentiation, and development is considered in relation to the involvement of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins) in the extra-and intracellular signal transduction. (deepdyve.com)
  • Each cytoskeletal filament type is formed by polymerization of a distinct type of protein subunit and has its own characteristic shape and intracellular distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dock7 (Dedicator of cytokinesis 7), also known as Zir2, is a large (~240 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a sub-part (intracellular signaling peptides and proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dock4, (Dedicator of cytokinesis 4) also known as DOCK4, is a large (~190 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterotrimeric
  • The complete amino‐terminal, non‐catalytic half of Ste20p, including the conserved Cdc42p binding domain, was dispensable for heterotrimeric G‐protein‐mediated pheromone signaling. (embopress.org)
  • These short polypeptides bind to cell type‐specific receptors and thereby trigger the activation of a heterotrimeric G‐protein that is common to both cell types (for a review, see Herskowitz, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • The G beta-gamma complex (Gβγ) is a tightly bound dimeric protein complex, composed of one Gβ and one Gγ subunit, and is a component of heterotrimeric G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The GTP-binding protein Rac is the regulator of this membrane ruffling. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of actin-binding and organizing proteins localize to membrane ruffles and potentially target to transducing molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • GDI proteins form a large complex with the Rho protein, helping to prevent diffusion within the membrane and into the cytosol and thus acting as an anchor and allowing tight spatial control of Rho activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the cell can bud, Cdc42 is used to locate the region of the cell's membrane that will begin to bulge into the new cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, PhLP is released, exposing the binding site for Gα, allowing for formation of the final trimer at the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prenylation is thought to be involved in directing the interaction of the subunit both with membrane lipids and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • reorganization
  • This protein may be necessary for dendritic development and for the rapid cytoskeletal reorganization in dendritic spines associated with synaptic plasticity. (genetex.com)
  • family
  • 2-fold included Ras family proteins, such as Rab-4 and p62DOK, and Rho family proteins, such as CDC42GAP and ROKα. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The core domains of the PAK family include a kinase domain in the C-terminal region, a p21-binding domain (PBD), and an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) in group I PAKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dock7 was identified as one of a number of proteins which share high sequence similarity with the previously described protein Dock180, the archetypal member of the DOCK family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many DOCK family proteins contain important structural features at their N- and C-termini, however, these regions in Dock7 are poorly characterised thus far and no such features have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many members of the DOCK family are regulated by protein-protein interactions mediated via domains at their N- and C-termini, however, the mechanisms by which Dock7 is regulated are largely unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • This observation is consistent with the role of the DHR1 domain in other DOCK family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • DOCK proteins are known activators of small G proteins of the Rho family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho proteins sometimes denote some members of the Rho family (RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC), and sometimes refers to all members of the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gβ subunit is a member of the β-propellor family of proteins, which typically possess 4-8 antiparallel β-sheets arranged in the shape of a propeller. (wikipedia.org)
  • DOCK family proteins contribute to cell signalling by activating G proteins of the Rho family, such as Rac and Cdc42. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, Dock4 has also been shown to activate Rap1, a feature not reported in any of the other DOCK family proteins to date. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • 100 small G proteins have been identified in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. (ahajournals.org)
  • In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of rapid growth or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements at a certain period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • The mating response of the haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a genetically tractable model system to study a G‐protein regulated mitogen‐activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. (embopress.org)
  • Shortly after, the Gβγ complex associated with a mating factor receptor-coupled G protein in yeast was found to initiate a pheromone response. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • My laboratory defines the "signal relay" systems initiated by various cellular stimuli including cytokines, growth factors, antigens, and drugs used to treat human disease.The unifying hypothesis directing the work in my laboratory is that the differential expression and spatial organization of signal relay proteins controls the responsiveness of different cell types to specific stimuli. (unc.edu)
  • Microfilaments are composed of the most abundant cellular protein known as actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • All G proteins are "molecular switches", and Rho proteins play a role in organelle development, cytoskeletal dynamics, cell movement, and other common cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the mid-1990s, Rho proteins had been observed to affect the formation of cellular projections ("processes") in fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho/Rac proteins are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions such as cell polarity, vesicular trafficking, the cell cycle and transcriptomal dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • DOCK
  • Dock4, however, contains a unique set of motifs at its proline-rich C-terminus which include a Src-binding site that is shared with CED-5, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian DOCK proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding to ELMO requires the atypical PH domain of ELMO and also involves an interaction between the N-terminal SH3 domain of DOCK and a proline-rich motif at the ELMO C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • With the development of imaging technologies, particularly green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivative fluorescent proteins (FPs), it is now convenient to visualize molecular signals at subcellular levels in live cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To better understand the molecular changes that occur in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), we employed antibody-based protein microarrays to compare patterns of protein expression between untreated WM and normal bone marrow controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The recent development of protein array techniques allows for a comprehensive analysis of molecular changes at a functional protein level. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5-8 Importantly, recent accumulating evidence highlighted the significance of these small G proteins as essential molecular switches that trigger many of the signal transduction and functions of Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • In molecular terms, citron-K depletion impaired the accumulation of 3 key proteins: Rho, Anillin and septins (specifically septin 6 and 7) in the intercellular bridge in mid-late telophase, which in previous stages early to mid-telophase was found to co-localize with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Thus, Ras proteins are critical in stimulating cell growth and division. (ahajournals.org)
  • Being a nodular signaling molecule, PAK1 operates to converging station of a large number of signals triggered by proteins on the cell surface as well as upstream activators, and translates into specific phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, the Cdc42p binding domain was required for cell-cell adhesion during conjugation. (embopress.org)
  • The carboxy C-terminal domain contains repeating units that are responsible for receptor binding on target cell surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor binding is the first step required for entry into the cell via endocytosis in an acidic endosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Rho protein affects numerous proteins downstream, all of which having roles in various cell processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Cdc42 is removed from the cell, the outgrowths still form, but do so in an unorganized manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most obvious changes to cell morphology controlled by Rho proteins is the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, projecting processes that look like "fingers" or "feet" and often propel cells or growth cones across surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAK4
  • The PAK4 generates 12 transcripts of which 10 coding transcripts are predicted to code proteins of about 438 to 591 amino acids long, while remaining two transcripts are non-coding in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core domains of PAK4 include, a kinase domain in the C-terminal region, a p21-binding domain (PBD), and a newly defined auto-inhibitory domain (AID) or an AID-like pseudosubstrate sequence (PS) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAK4 has been shown to interact with: CDC42, ITGB5, and LIMK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translocation
  • A centrally located hydrophobic domain containing a cluster of 172 highly conserved hydrophobic amino acids is thought to be important for translocation of the enzymatic portion of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Moreover, RalB specifically interacts with Exo84 to assemble the beclin-1-VPS34 autophagy initiation complex, and with Sec5 to activate the innate immune response via the Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The antibody-based protein microarray allows the screening of multiple samples simultaneously and generation of signature profiles ( 11 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • interacts
  • AT 1 interacts with multiple heterotrimetric G proteins, including G q/11 , G i , G 12 , and G 13 , and produces second messengers, such as inositol triphosphate, diacylglycerol, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). (ahajournals.org)