• cytotoxic T lymphocyt
  • Granulysin is present in cytolytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It triggers a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) response and thus, it is cleared rapidly by the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their key experiment involved harvesting of splenocytes containing LCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) from an infected mouse strain A. These were then mixed in vitro with virus infected fibroblasts or macrophages from two different mouse strains, A and B. By the method of Cr-release cytotoxicity assay, thereby tagging the CTL with chromium-51 (Cr-51), the CTL destruction of infected cells was quantified by release of Cr-51. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • We are interested in the structure of the TCR on the surface of T lymphocytes, the cytoplasmic signaling proteins that convey the signal to the nucleus and how new genes get turned on by TCR signals. (openwetware.org)
  • The short cytoplasmic/intracellular tail (C) of CD4 contains a special sequence of amino acids that allow it to recruit and interact with the tyrosine kinase Lck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting close proximity between the TCR complex and CD4 (extracellular and intracellular) allows the tyrosine kinase Lck bound to the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 to tyrosine-phosphorylate the Immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAM) on the cytoplasmic domains of CD3 to amplify the signal generated by the TCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • HIV antibody tests exceed the performance of most other infectious disease tests in both sensitivity (the ability of the screening test to give a positive finding when the person tested truly has the disease) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when the subjects tested are free of the disease under study). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was discovered in the late 1970s and was originally known as leu-3 and T4 (after the OKT4 monoclonal antibody that reacted with it) before being named CD4 in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • VISTA is produced at high levels in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, and its blockade with an antibody results in delayed tumor growth in mouse models of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known as gp120. (wikipedia.org)
  • While CD4 counts are not a direct HIV test-e.g. they do not check the presence of viral DNA, or specific antibodies against HIV-they are used to assess the immune system of a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Viral load testing provides more information about the efficacy for therapy than CD4 counts. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Studies of acute and early CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection in man and SIV mac infection in rhesus macaques have demonstrated that CD4 + T cells at mucosal sites, particularly within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are preferentially targeted and depleted [ 1 - 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • If CD4 cells become depleted, for example in untreated HIV infection, or following immune suppression prior to a transplant, the body is left vulnerable to a wide range of infections that it would otherwise have been able to fight. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name is based on the tendency of an individual to have abnormally high levels of lymphocytes during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • While thymically derived T reg are essential for this protection, converted T reg formed in the GALT following naïve CD4 + T cell encounter with antigen may provide additional protection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The purpose of the study is to assess the response rate of patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or transformed low-grade, CD20-positive, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to Iodine-131 (I-131) tositumomab (Bexxar) therapy plus local palliative radiation therapy (XRT). (stanford.edu)
  • This method is useful for isolation of a particular cell type, for instance CD4 lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty one tests were carried out on mutant mice and one significant abnormality was observed: hemizygous mutant males had decreased CD4-positive and CD8-positive T cell numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many cell surface receptors/markers, CD4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Recombinant 9 kD granulysin is broadly cytolytic against tumors and microbes, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi/yeast and parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • On the other hand, its positive predictive value is high enough for it to be regarded as a pathognomonic sign of Hodgkin lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • This results in the overproduction of lymphocytes, which build up and cause enlargement of the lymph nodes , liver and spleen. (nih.gov)