• cytotoxic T lymphocyt
  • Granulysin is present in cytolytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It triggers a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) response and thus, it is cleared rapidly by the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their key experiment involved harvesting of splenocytes containing LCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) from an infected mouse strain A. These were then mixed in vitro with virus infected fibroblasts or macrophages from two different mouse strains, A and B. By the method of Cr-release cytotoxicity assay, thereby tagging the CTL with chromium-51 (Cr-51), the CTL destruction of infected cells was quantified by release of Cr-51. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • We are interested in the structure of the TCR on the surface of T lymphocytes, the cytoplasmic signaling proteins that convey the signal to the nucleus and how new genes get turned on by TCR signals. (openwetware.org)
  • The short cytoplasmic/intracellular tail (C) of CD4 contains a special sequence of amino acids that allow it to recruit and interact with the tyrosine kinase Lck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting close proximity between the TCR complex and CD4 (extracellular and intracellular) allows the tyrosine kinase Lck bound to the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 to tyrosine-phosphorylate the Immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAM) on the cytoplasmic domains of CD3 to amplify the signal generated by the TCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymph nodes
  • We found that exposure of resting CD4+ T lymphocytes to HIV-1 transiently upregulated expression of cell surface CD62L (L-selectin), the receptor for homing to lymph nodes, with concomitant enhanced ability of these cells to bind to lymph node high endothelial venules in an ex vivohoming assay (increased ∼12-fold, P (naver.com)
  • This suggested the possibility that decreases in numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the blood of HIV-1-infected subjects may reflect enhanced homing of abortively infected, resting lymphocytes into lymph nodes rather than direct virus replication in and killing of these cells, and may explain development of lymphadenopathy at a time when numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the blood fall. (naver.com)
  • No significant changes were observed in total cell count or percentage of CD3 + CD4 + T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mucosal
  • Studies of acute and early CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection in man and SIV mac infection in rhesus macaques have demonstrated that CD4 + T cells at mucosal sites, particularly within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are preferentially targeted and depleted [ 1 - 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • More recently it has been suggested that there is selective depletion of the Th17 cells from the GI tract- and that the loss of these cells may result in loss of mucosal integrity, translocation of microbial products, immune activation and subsequent CD4 + T cell loss [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • antibody
  • HIV antibody tests exceed the performance of most other infectious disease tests in both sensitivity (the ability of the screening test to give a positive finding when the person tested truly has the disease) and specificity (the ability of the test to give a negative finding when the subjects tested are free of the disease under study). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was discovered in the late 1970s and was originally known as leu-3 and T4 (after the OKT4 monoclonal antibody that reacted with it) before being named CD4 in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • These mice have overproliferation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, extensive multiorgan infiltration, and elevation of numerous cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • 12 Parameters to be monitored Efficacy measures C-peptide levels HbA1c Insulin usage Blood glucose level monitoring Immune measures lymphocyte subsets, (CD4, CD8, B, NK) IgG, IgA and IgM serum levels. (docplayer.net)
  • AIDS
  • While this virus is the underlying cause of AIDS, not all HIV-positive individuals have AIDS, as HIV can remain in a latent state for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Recombinant 9 kD granulysin is broadly cytolytic against tumors and microbes, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi/yeast and parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • The RNA-dependent, RNA-polymerase brought along with the virus initially binds to a promoter on the L and S segments and begins transcription from negative-stranded to a positive-stranded mRNA. (wikipedia.org)