• intracellular
  • Across the plasma membrane, the average intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) is generally maintained at a level approximately 10 000 times lower than that of extracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] o ) by Ca 2+ regulators such as Ca 2+ -ATPase or the Na + -Ca 2+ exchanger, which actively regulate the gradients to achieve equilibrium. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to intracellular movement of components internally but not externally and that membranes weren't the equivalent of a cell wall to plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1972
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • 4 Mislocalization of eNOS outside the caveolar membrane in nonacylating mutants markedly reduces the sensitivity of the enzyme to Ca 2+ influx as a trigger for the NO production, a fundamental determinant of cardiovascular homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
  • receptor
  • We show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and a protein tyrosine kinase, Lck, have a patchy plasma membrane distribution in Jurkat T cells at reduced temperatures, although they have a continuous distribution at physiological temperature (37°C). GM1 displays a patchy distribution at reduced temperature after Triton X-100 extraction. (biologists.org)
  • influx
  • Although TRP channels permeate many different cations, they are most often ascribed a specific biological function because of Ca 2+ influx, either for microdomain signaling or to reload internal Ca 2+ stores in the endoplasmic reticulum through a store-operated mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1970s
  • Despite the numerous models of the cell membrane proposed prior to the fluid mosaic model, it remains the primary archetype for the cell membrane long after its inception in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, membrane microdomains were postulated in the 1970s using biophysical approaches by Stier & Sackmann and Klausner & Karnovsky. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid mosai
  • The fluid mosaic model not only provided an accurate representation of membrane mechanics, it enhanced the study of hydrophobic forces, which would later develop into an essential descriptive limitation to describe biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Here, we review the emerging evidence that TRP channels, especially TRPCs, are critical regulators of microdomain signaling in the heart to control pathological hypertrophy in coordination with signaling through effectors such as calcineurin and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells). (ahajournals.org)
  • The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also inferred that cell membranes weren't vital components to all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • amyloid
  • The amyloid beta region of the protein, located in the membrane-spanning domain, is not well conserved across species and has no obvious connection with APP's native-state biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • alpha secretase and beta secretase both remove nearly the entire extracellular domain to release membrane-anchored carboxy-terminal fragments that may be associated with apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrated the presence of a novel Ca 2+ wave propagating beneath the plasma membrane in response to acute elevation of extracellular [Ca 2+ ], by targeting a Ca 2+ sensor, cameleon, to the endothelial plasmalemma. (ahajournals.org)
  • biochemical
  • 3 The heterogeneous structure and biochemical components of the plasma membrane have the potential to create marked differences in Ca 2+ regulation in the subplasmalemmal space. (ahajournals.org)
  • thickness
  • In 1925 it was determined by Fricke that the thickness of erythrocyte and yeast cell membranes ranged between 3.3 and 4 nm, a thickness compatible with a lipid monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Independently, the leptoscope was invented in order to measure very thin membranes by comparing the intensity of light reflected from a sample to the intensity of a membrane standard of known thickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysosomes
  • Material may then be delivered to a variety of compartments including the trans-Golgi network (TGN), the lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane (11). (deepdyve.com)
  • contain
  • These virions contain a single virus‑encoded membrane glycoprotein, GP, which is organized into homotrimeric spikes on the viral surface (see [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] for recent reviews). (mdpi.com)
  • model
  • Later in the 1930s, the membrane structure model developed in general agreement to be the paucimolecular model of Davson and Danielli (1935). (wikipedia.org)