• humans
  • It is very unlikely that there is any risk to humans though with any new virus it is best to take sensible hygiene precautions when dealing with affected livestock or abortion material. (maesglasvets.co.uk)
  • Sometimes intermediate vectors, such mosquitos, fleas or ticks, may transmit the virus to humans. (nationalgeographic.org)
  • The virus can cause severe disease in both animals and humans. (cdc.gov)
  • By preventing RVF in animals, fewer humans will be infected from mosquitoes carrying the virus or from direct contact with a sick animal. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemics caused by viruses began when human behaviour changed during the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago, when humans developed more densely populated agricultural communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smallpox and measles viruses are among the oldest that infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past 50,000-100,000 years, as modern humans increased in numbers and dispersed throughout the world, new infectious diseases emerged, including those caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus, which only infected humans, probably descended from the poxviruses of rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans probably came into contact with these rodents, and some people became infected by the viruses they carried. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmission of viruses from animals to humans can occur, but such zoonotic infections are rare and subsequent human-to-human transmission of animal viruses is even rarer, although there are notable exceptions such as influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rare epidemics of viral diseases originating in animals would have been short-lived because the viruses were not fully adapted to humans and the human populations were too small to maintain the chains of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes viruses first infected the ancestors of modern humans over 80 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • THOV, DHOV and Bourbon virus can infect humans, and have occasionally been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans, SIV infections in their natural African simian non-human hosts appear in many cases to be non-pathogenic due to evolutionary adaptation of the hosts to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies indicated that HIV-2 is derived from the SIVsmm strain found in sooty mangabeys, whereas HIV-1, the predominant virus found in humans, is derived from SIV strains infecting chimpanzees (SIVcpz). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Ticks are both "environmental reservoir" and vector for the virus, carrying it from wild animals to domestic animals and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bhanja virus in humans was first documented in 1974 when Charles Calisher was working with the virus in a lab and contracted it himself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bhanja virus is not known to be transmitted between humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bhanja virus produces febrile illness in humans with symptoms including photophobia, vomiting, meningoencephalitis, and slight or partial paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HRSV is virtually the same as chimpanzee coryza virus and can be transmitted from apes to humans, although transmission from humans to apes is more common. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the virus can cause several syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Person-to-Person transmission of the virus has yet to be reported, so it is not considered to be contagious in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses are a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria), genome segment number (one to twelve) and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers or turrets). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no commercially available vaccination for cattle or humans against paravaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paravaccinia virus was first characterized in by Edward Jenner in 1799 with the presence of lesions on humans, later described as Milker's nodule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bolvine papular stomatitis has been reported in the United States of America, Great Britain, Brazil, Switzerland, and Japan Very little research has been done on Paravaccinia virus in humans over the last 40 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Included in this volume are discussions of the distribution and molecular phylogeny of the SIVs and their use as animal models for the study of AIDS pathogenesis, and the chapters clearly illustrate how SIV models are contributing to our understanding of the ability of host immune responses to control infection at least temporarily and the ability of virus to evade these host immune defenses. (springer.com)
  • If the outbreak is found to be linked to one of the two sites at the facility, it likely means the infection will be contained to nearby cattle, reducing the risks of a repeat of the mass outbreaks six years ago, officials said. (nbcnews.com)
  • Extensive studies in sooty mangabeys have established that SIVsmm infection does not cause any disease in these African primates, despite high levels of circulating virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Infection with Bhanja Virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • While sheeppox and goatpox viruses tend to enter animals through respiratory routes and abraded skin, biting insects are considered the major driving force for the spread and infection of LSDV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paravaccinia virus is a viral infection of the Parapoxvirus genus of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, cattle only show a short immunization after initial infection, providing opportunity to continue to infect more livestock and new human hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since first being characterized in cows, bovine papular stomatitis has been isolated in sheep, goats, and red deer creating new potential sources for human infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onset of fever occurs almost one week after infection by the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ticks
  • Thogotoviruses are distinguished from most other orthomyxoviruses by being arboviruses - viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, in this case usually ticks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pat Nuttall and colleagues have speculated that the acquisition enabled these viruses to infect ticks. (wikipedia.org)
  • closely related viruses have been isolated from widely separated regions, suggesting that viral dispersion has occurred possibly by ticks carried on migratory birds or through international livestock trade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reassortment among genome segments during coinfection of ticks or vertebrates seems likely to have played a role in generating diversity in this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bhanja virus is transmitted from ticks and has furthermore mainly been isolated from the ticks of the genera Dermacentor and Haemaphysalis, although it can be transmitted by any Ixodidae ticks. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a possibility that migratory birds play a role in spreading the virus by carrying infected ticks on them to new regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • The CCHF virus is typically spread by tick bites or contact with livestock carrying the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease was first reported among livestock in Rift Valley of Kenya in the early 1900s, and the virus was first isolated in 1931. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nishinippon Shimbun], and other newspapers reported on March 31 that the veterinarian requested the [Miyazaki Livestock Hygiene Service Center] for diagnosis but foot-and-mouth disease symptoms were not evident and no bacterium nor virus that might have caused the diarrhea were found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human can contract the virus from contact with livestock infected with Bovine papular stomatitis and is common with ranchers, milkers, and veterinarians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paravaccinia virus presents itself with blisters, nodules, or lesions about 4 mm in diameter, typically in the area that has made contact with livestock that is infected with bovine papular stomatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paravaccinia virus originates from livestock infected with bovine papular stomatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral or respiratory contraction may be more likely to cause systemic symptoms such as lesions across the whole body A person who has not previously been infected with paravaccinia virus should avoid contact with infected livestock to prevent contraction of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cows
  • Around 120 cows were slaughtered over the weekend after the virus was identified and confirmed in two animals Saturday, the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said. (nbcnews.com)
  • serotype
  • When the serotype or lineage of the virus needs to be determined, it can be done using a series of serotype-specific PCR tests or genome sequencing, and can be confirmed by virus neutralisation tests. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • The Miyazaki FMD Control Department announced on March 29 that the virus had been identified as serotype O. A further announcement on April 2 revealed that nine more cattle were infected, and that the first case could have been contracted from straw imported from China, but this was never confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • A consequence of being transmitted by blood-sucking vectors is that the virus must spread systemically in the vertebrate host - unlike influenza viruses, which are transmitted by respiratory droplets and are usually confined to the respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus is a medium-sized (120-200 nm) enveloped virus that contains a lipoprotein coat and a linear negative-sense RNA genome (must be converted to an anti-sense genome prior to translation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious
  • The virus exits the host cell by existing in occlusion bodies after cell death and remaining infectious until finding another host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudorabies, PRV, Aujeszky's disease, infectious bulbar paralysis or 'mad itch', is caused by a virus with icosahedral symmetry and belongs to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae within the family Herpesviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Pregnant female animals often abort and dairy cattle may give less milk. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) are present in the blood of infected animals, the group uses blood samples to detect both antibody to the virus and the virus itself. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • These tests do not detect the actual virus, only the animal's immune response to it, and cannot differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • The sample included 340 female animals (168 sheep and 172 goats) and 160 kids and lambs (78 lambs and 82 kids). (scielo.org.za)
  • Evidence so far suggests that many animals have been infected with Schmallenberg virus without any clinical signs detected. (maesglasvets.co.uk)
  • Other viruses in this group typically produce a strong immune response in animals affected with the virus which protects them from future disease of deformed offspring. (maesglasvets.co.uk)
  • Almost all pregnant animals will miscarry if they are infected with the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Infected animals develop high levels of virus in their blood, making it easy for mosquitoes that bite these animals to then become infected with the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • During early testing, all vaccinated animals were protected against the RVF virus. (cdc.gov)
  • These animals would have brought their viruses with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domestic animals like sheep, goats and cattle can develop high titers of virus in their blood, but tend not to fall ill. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bhanja virus has been found in vertebrate animals, most commonly in sheep, goats, cattle, African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), and African ground squirrels (Xerus erythropus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is transmitted through mosquito vectors, as well as through contact with the tissue of infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it can infect a wide variety of animals, WSL virus is most commonly found in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus has important economic implications since affected animals tend to have permanent damage to their skin, lowering the commercial value of their hide. (wikipedia.org)
  • breeds
  • 10. The reaction produced by K.G.V. in grade cattle (British breeds of cattle x Zebu) are severe but usually non-fatal. (up.ac.za)
  • Fine-skinned Bos taurus cattle breeds such as Holstein-Fresian and Jersey are the most susceptible to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • 1. Kabete goat virus was not transmitted from reacting to susceptible cattle under conditions of close contact. (up.ac.za)
  • In about 9000 BC, when many people began to settle on the fertile flood plains of the River Nile, the population became dense enough for the virus to maintain a constant presence because of the high concentration of susceptible people. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • In cattle, constant changing of position of the feet gives bluetongue the nickname The Dancing Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each year the Non-Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratories run a training course allowing scientists to improve their knowledge of exotic virus diseases and provide training in the principles and applications of more modern biotechnology (and thus extend their laboratory's diagnostic capabilities). (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • In this chapter, I describe experimental evolution studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). (nih.gov)
  • Most people infected with the RVF virus do not have any signs of disease, but some people will become very sick. (cdc.gov)
  • LONDON - Prime Minister Gordon Brown on Monday toured an emergency response center set up to deal with an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in southern England and reassured farmers the government was taking swift measures to stem the spread of the virus. (nbcnews.com)
  • He said experts were working to pinpoint the precise cause of the outbreak, but added that the strain of the disease found in two infected cattle at the farm where the outbreak occurred is the same one used at a research laboratory nearby. (nbcnews.com)
  • Veterinary experts matched the strain found last week in cattle on a farm outside Wanborough, 30 miles southwest of London, to the laboratory, which manufactures vaccines against the disease. (nbcnews.com)
  • Periodic outbreaks of the disease caused by viruses O and A have been recorded in the USSR. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a potential vector of Kyasanur Forest disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is caused by the RVF virus, which is of the Phlebovirus type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nodules, in which the disease is characterized by, appear seven to nineteen days after virus inoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genera
  • Thogotovirus is a genus of enveloped RNA viruses, one of seven genera in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus is one of 6 genera in subfamily orthoretrovirinae which together with genus Spumavirus form family retroviridae of all RNA retroviruses (RNA viruses which use a DNA intermediate). (wikipedia.org)
  • The orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are the prototypic members of the virus Reoviridae family and representative of the turreted members, which comprise about half the genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • Transmission of the virus is believed to be by biting insect carriers, such as midges and mosquitoes, as most Orthobunyaviruses spread this way though this has not yet been definitively confirmed. (maesglasvets.co.uk)
  • South Wales would have been a medium risk area for transmission of the virus (possibly through native midges) from South England during spring and summer of 2012. (maesglasvets.co.uk)
  • The virus has also been recovered from cattle, goats and sheep, but these are not regarded as major vectors of transmission and there is no animal reservoir of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Compared with the studies carried out on cattle, current knowledge of small ruminant diseases is fragmentary and incomplete. (scielo.org.za)
  • In the 20th century many diseases both old and new were found to be caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although scientific interest in them arose because of the diseases they cause, most viruses are beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. (wikipedia.org)
  • bronchiolitis or pneumonia asthma recurring infections acute otitis media HRSV is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead individuals may refer to people with local knowledge of the cattle in their area such as ranchers, or veterinarians who have some familiarity with the infections in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreak
  • The cause of this outbreak was the Rift Valley fever virus. (cdc.gov)
  • These viruses cause negative economic consequences by damaging hides and wool and forcing the establishment of trade restrictions in response to an outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, approximately 700 cattle were slaughtered in this outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • particle
  • The virus particle consists of ten strands of double-stranded RNA surrounded by two protein shells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus particle is enveloped. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus particle matures into brick-shaped intracellular mature virion (IMV). (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years the increasing knowledge of virus particle assembly, virus-cell interactions, and viral pathogenesis allow approaches for the development of novel antiviral strategies or agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The two remaining non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2, are produced at high levels in the cytoplasm and are believed to be involved in virus replication, assembly and morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP1, VP4 and VP6 are minor enzymatic proteins that are packaged along with the ten genome segments within the central space of the virus core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its name comes from the fact that F proteins on the surface of the virus cause the cell membranes on nearby cells to merge, forming syncytia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • The presence of viruses are detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for the genetic material of the virus in the submitted sample. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • progeny virus
  • Of these, NS3/NS3A is involved in the egress of the progeny virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms tubules that may be involved in translocation of progeny virus particles to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are involved in the release of progeny virus particles from infected cells and may be involved in determination of both vector competence and virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • They may have common ancestry with plant positive strand RNA viruses in supergroup 1 with potyvirus lineages, respectively A new clade (as yet unnamed) of six viruses infecting filamentous fungi has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • 8. The rapid production of immunity induced by a single injection of formal-glycerine spleen-vaccine could be used to control the reaction to K.G.V. An interval of 7 days between vaccine and virus appeared to be the optimum. (up.ac.za)
  • 9. Spleen-vaccine prepared from cattle reacting to K.G.V. has an inferior antigenic potency. (up.ac.za)
  • There is no specific treatment for the virus, but sheep can be immunized with an attenuated vaccine that lasts a lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • India
  • The Bhanja virus is a tick-borne Phlebovirus first discovered in a tick (Haemaphysalis intermedia) taken from a paralyzed goat in Bhanjanagar, India in 1954. (wikipedia.org)
  • influenza
  • The two viruses were originally considered to be bunyaviruses, but characterisation in the 1980s and early 1990s revealed similarities with influenza viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thogotovirus glycoprotein is not similar to the influenza virus glycoproteins (haemagglutinin and neuraminidase), and instead shows some similarities with the gp64 glycoprotein of baculoviruses, which infect insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of ML is completely different from the equivalent protein in influenza viruses (NS1). (wikipedia.org)