• ammonium
  • As salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (HCN, or hydrocyanic acid), cyanides are formed by replacing the hydrogen of hydrogen cyanide with a metal, such as sodium or potassium , or by replacing the hydrogen with a radical (such as ammonium). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • steam
  • This process consists of heating the gas in the presence of steam and a nickel catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can deliver benefits for an oil refinery because it is more efficient than separate hydrogen, steam and power plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules of water are constantly moving in relation to each other, and the hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds (2×10−13 seconds). (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative instability of the carbon-oxygen bonds in the molecule is revealed by the comparison in the table of the energy required to break two C-O bonds in the ethylene oxide or one C-O bond in ethanol and dimethyl ether: This instability correlates with its high reactivity, explaining the ease of its ring-opening reactions (see Chemical properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • generates
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen fuel cell also generates, in step d), water that is recycled and used in the catalysing step b). (google.es)
  • IUPAC
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarized form of the water molecule, H+ OH− , is also called hydron hydroxide by IUPAC nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • flue
  • WDG analyzers are based on a zirconium oxide cell that provides a reliable and cost-effective solution for measuring excess oxygen in flue gas as well as CO and methane levels. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Fossil
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fossil fuels are the dominant source of industrial hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capturing CO2 is most effective at point sources, such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major CO2 emissions, natural gas processing, synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxide
  • 8. A catalyst device as claimed in claim 7, wherein the membrane is of aluminium oxide. (google.com)
  • This invention is concerned with the use of porous inorganic membranes, particularly anodic aluminium oxide membranes as catalyst supports Porous alumina ceramics are very well known and widely used as catalyst supports. (google.com)
  • Anodic aluminium oxide films have previously been used as catalyst supports, as described in Japanese Patent Specifications Nos. (google.com)
  • Earth's
  • Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks, and in the interiors of larger nickel-iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • methanol
  • 5 million tons of hydrogen were consumed on-site in oil refining, and in the production of ammonia (Haber process) and methanol (reduction of carbon monoxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • 10. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the combining step c) comprises the step of adding to the solution of bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions obtained in step b) an electron donor. (google.es)
  • gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • On Titan, where temperatures are around 90 Kelvin (minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit), a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes, but not water itself. (spacefellowship.com)
  • The long coiled polymeric molecules make the brownish substance elastic, and in bulk this form has the feel of crude rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere, though there are liquid-water-based microbes on Earth that thrive on methane or produce it as a waste product. (spacefellowship.com)
  • The new hydrogen findings are consistent with conditions that could produce an exotic, methane-based life form, but do not definitively prove its existence, said Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., who authored the paper on hydrogen. (spacefellowship.com)
  • In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • nickel
  • Nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments and metal surface treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • For example, bitter almonds (as opposed to sweet almonds) can yield dangerous amounts of prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when eaten raw, but the toxicity can be removed by heating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • acid
  • The various cyanides are salts or esters of HCN (hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid), whereby the hydrogen is replaced with a metal or radical, yielding such as potassium cyanide (KCN), calcium cyanide (CA(CN) 2 ), or ethyl cyanide (CH 3 CH 2 CN). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Other systematic names for water include hydroxic acid, hydroxylic acid, and hydrogen hydroxide, using acid and base names. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • 7 January Scientists report that, about 800 million years ago, a minor genetic change in a single molecule, called GK-PID, may have allowed organisms to go from a single cell organism to one of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Despite the multiple attractive features of metal oxides as gas-sensitive materials, the detection of chemicals with a high-temperature chemiresistor can be challenging and presents a number of difficulties, such as: substantial thermal noise, high energy consumption and large size from the incorporation of additional heating elements, temperature controller, and signal processing elements. (mdpi.com)
  • water
  • While liquid water is widely regarded as necessary for life, there has been extensive speculation published in the scientific literature that this is not a strict requirement. (spacefellowship.com)
  • Unlike other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family, water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions due to hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • In the process oxygen gets released. (scribd.com)
  • The hydrogen ions resulting from the enzymatic process are recovered and combined in order to supply the hydrogen fuel cell. (google.es)
  • 3. A process as claimed in claim 2 , wherein said hydration of step b) is catalysed by means of an enzyme capable of catalysing the hydration of dissolved CO 2 into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. (google.es)
  • Additional heat required to drive the process is generally supplied by burning some portion of the methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • According to one theory put forth by astrobiologists, the signatures fulfill two important conditions necessary for a hypothesized "methane-based life. (spacefellowship.com)
  • This lack of acetylene is important because that chemical would likely be the best energy source for a methane-based life on Titan, said Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., who proposed a set of conditions necessary for this kind of methane-based life on Titan in 2005. (spacefellowship.com)
  • We suggested hydrogen consumption because it's the obvious gas for life to consume on Titan, similar to the way we consume oxygen on Earth," McKay said. (spacefellowship.com)