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  • atom
  • The common reaction in which it unites with another substance is called oxidation (see oxidation and reduction oxidation and reduction, complementary chemical reactions characterized by the loss or gain, respectively, of one or more electrons by an atom or molecule. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In a second stage, additional hydrogen is generated through the lower-temperature, exothermic, water gas shift reaction, performed at about 360 °C: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Essentially, the oxygen (O) atom is stripped from the additional water (steam) to oxidize CO to CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaseous
  • Oxygen is paramagnetic in its solid, liquid, and gaseous forms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Consequently, the catalytic reactions of gaseous species with oxygen sites on the surface induce charge transfer from the surface to the bulk, which changes the electrical resistance of the device. (mdpi.com)
  • Gaseous CO2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen. (google.es)
  • Gaseous CO 2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions by the enzymatic system in order to prevent their contribution to the greenhouse effect. (google.es)
  • a transfer means for transferring the gaseous hydrogen from the combiner to the hydrogen fuel cell. (google.es)
  • ammonium
  • As salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (HCN, or hydrocyanic acid), cyanides are formed by replacing the hydrogen of hydrogen cyanide with a metal, such as sodium or potassium , or by replacing the hydrogen with a radical (such as ammonium). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • fossil
  • Interest in developing catalysts for solar-powered reduction of carbon dioxide to generate fuels has increased with the rapid consumption of fossil fuels over the past century, and with the desire for renewable sources of energy. (eurekalert.org)
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fossil fuels are the dominant source of industrial hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capturing CO2 is most effective at point sources, such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major CO2 emissions, natural gas processing, synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • The asymmetrical shape of the molecule arises from a tendency of the four electron pairs in the valence shell of oxygen to arrange themselves symmetrically at the vertices of a tetrahedron around the oxygen nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the combining step c) comprises the step of adding to the solution of bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions obtained in step b) an electron donor. (google.es)
  • generates
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen fuel cell also generates, in step d), water that is recycled and used in the catalysing step b). (google.es)
  • IUPAC
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polarized form of the water molecule, H+ OH− , is also called hydron hydroxide by IUPAC nomenclature. (wikipedia.org)
  • steam
  • This process consists of heating the gas in the presence of steam and a nickel catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can deliver benefits for an oil refinery because it is more efficient than separate hydrogen, steam and power plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Scientists have not yet detected this form of life anywhere, though there are liquid-water-based microbes on Earth that thrive on methane or produce it as a waste product. (nasa.gov)
  • The new hydrogen findings are consistent with conditions that could produce an exotic, methane-based life form, but do not definitively prove its existence, said Darrell Strobel, a Cassini interdisciplinary scientist based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., who authored the paper on hydrogen. (nasa.gov)
  • Ozone ozone , an allotropic form of the chemical element oxygen (see allotropy). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and serve the plant as defense against herbivores . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The long coiled polymeric molecules make the brownish substance elastic, and in bulk this form has the feel of crude rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe , constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. [note Non- remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereby
  • The various cyanides are salts or esters of HCN (hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid), whereby the hydrogen is replaced with a metal or radical, yielding such as potassium cyanide (KCN), calcium cyanide (CA(CN) 2 ), or ethyl cyanide (CH 3 CH 2 CN). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Earth's
  • Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks, and in the interiors of larger nickel-iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • This lack of acetylene is important because that chemical would likely be the best energy source for a methane-based life on Titan, said Chris McKay, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., who proposed a set of conditions necessary for this kind of methane-based life on Titan in 2005. (nasa.gov)
  • The prefix cyano is used in chemical nomenclature to indicate the presence of a nitrile group in a molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments and metal surface treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • greenhouse
  • The achievement marks a significant step forward in developing technology that could help generate fuel and other energy-rich products using a solar-powered catalyst while mitigating levels of a potent greenhouse gas. (eurekalert.org)
  • water
  • On Titan, where temperatures are around 90 Kelvin (minus 290 degrees Fahrenheit), a methane-based organism would have to use a substance that is liquid as its medium for living processes, but not water itself. (nasa.gov)
  • While liquid water is widely regarded as necessary for life, there has been extensive speculation published in the scientific literature that this is not a strict requirement. (nasa.gov)
  • Among the well-known examples of carbon dioxide reduction is in photosynthesis, when plants transfer electrons from water to carbon dioxide while creating carbohydrates and oxygen. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because of hydrogen bonding between water molecules, the latent heats latent heat, heat change associated with a change of state or phase (see states of matter). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other systematic names for water include hydroxic acid, hydroxylic acid, and hydrogen hydroxide, using acid and base names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family, water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions due to hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the quality of the feedstock (natural gas, rich gases, naphtha, etc.), one ton of hydrogen produced will also produce 9 to 12 tons of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • We show a near 100 percent selectivity of CO production, with no detection of competing gas products like hydrogen or methane," said Haimei Zheng, staff scientist in Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Despite the multiple attractive features of metal oxides as gas-sensitive materials, the detection of chemicals with a high-temperature chemiresistor can be challenging and presents a number of difficulties, such as: substantial thermal noise, high energy consumption and large size from the incorporation of additional heating elements, temperature controller, and signal processing elements. (mdpi.com)
  • nickel
  • They determined that in an hour at room temperature, 1 gram of the nickel-organic catalyst was able to produce 16,000 micromoles, or 400 milliliters, of carbon monoxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nickel has been widely used in coins, though its rising price has led to some replacement with cheaper metals in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • For example, bitter almonds (as opposed to sweet almonds) can yield dangerous amounts of prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when eaten raw, but the toxicity can be removed by heating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • genetic
  • 7 January Scientists report that, about 800 million years ago, a minor genetic change in a single molecule, called GK-PID, may have allowed organisms to go from a single cell organism to one of many cells. (wikipedia.org)