• Gene
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CASP8 gene encodes a member of the cysteine - aspartic acid protease ( caspase ) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Caspase-1, genes for specific COPs-ICEBERG, COP1 (ICE/Pseudo-ICE), and INCA (Inhibitory Card)-are all found near its locus, and are thus thought to have emerged from gene duplication events and subsequent deletions of the catalytic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Under normal circumstances, caspases recognize tetra-peptide sequences on their substrates and hydrolyze peptide bonds after aspartic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sf caspase-1 proenzyme is cleaved after the amino acid residues Asp-28 and Asp-195, resulting in a smaller 12 kDa fragment and a larger 19 kDa fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • DFFA is encoded by an alternatively encrypted mRNAs originating two distinct forms: short (ICAD-S) and long (ICAD-L), which act like a specific chaperone ensuring the correct CAD's folding Besides, it contains two aspartic acid residues (Asp117 and Asp224) where CAD is identified and, consequently, it stays bounded until Caspase-3 splits this union. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Analysis of peptide products from in vitro assays showed that human recombinant caspases 5 and 10 cleaved m19 at noncanonical sites to generate the antigenic epitope that activated the CTLs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Caspase-11 has been shown in vitro to be activated by Shigella flexneri infection, while a guinea pig model of Shigella infection has been shown to activate the human homolog of caspase-11, caspase-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterotetramer
  • When the procaspase is cleaved at a particular residue, the active heterotetramer can then be formed by hydrophobic interactions, causing four anti-parallel beta-sheets from p17 and two from p12 to come together to make a heterodimer, which in turn interacts with another heterodimer to form the full 12-stranded beta-sheet structure surrounded by alpha-helices that is unique to caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell both by extrinsic (death ligand) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammasome
  • Caspase-11, also termed the non-canonical inflammasome, is activated by TLR3/TLR4-TRIF signaling and directly binds cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major structural element of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • INCA, on the other hand, directly blocks inflammasome assembly by capping Caspase-1 CARD oligomers, thus blocking further polymerization into the inflammasome filaments. (wikipedia.org)