• Gene
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-10 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP10 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 2 also known as CASP2 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Caspase-1, genes for specific COPs-ICEBERG, COP1 (ICE/Pseudo-ICE), and INCA (Inhibitory Card)-are all found near its locus, and are thus thought to have emerged from gene duplication events and subsequent deletions of the catalytic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this enzyme was originally reported as a human caspase that could be activated by caspase 8, later studies confirmed the gene identified for caspase 13 came from bovine origin, and is the likely orthologue of human caspase 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 2000). Caspase 8: an efficient method for large-scale autoactivation of recombinant procaspase 8 by matrix adsorption and characterization of the active enzyme. (anaspec.com)
  • pathway
  • This extrinsic activation then triggers the hallmark caspase cascade characteristic of the apoptotic pathway, in which caspase-3 plays a dominant role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 zymogens were found to be S-nitrosylated on their catalytic-site cysteine in unstimulated human cell lines and denitrosylated upon activation of the Fas apoptotic pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • S-nitrosylated on its catalytic site cysteine in unstimulated human cell lines and denitrosylated upon activation of the Fas apoptotic pathway, associated with an increase in intracellular caspase activity. (abcam.com)
  • inhibits caspase activity
  • In particular, it has been shown that NO synthase (NOS) activity can lead to caspase inhibition by a mechanism independent of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, that caspases can be S-nitrosylated by NO donors in cellular and in vitro systems, that the S-nitrosylation takes place solely on the active-site cysteine, and that this modification inhibits caspase activity in a reversible manner ( 2-4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • activation
  • Activation of Caspases ensures that the cellular components are degraded in a controlled manner, carrying out cell death with minimal effect on surrounding tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, over-activation of some caspases such as caspase-3 can lead to excessive programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insufficient activation of these caspases can increase an organism's susceptibility to infection, as an appropriate immune response may not be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs blocking the activation of Caspase-1 have been used to improve the health of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiprotein complexes often form during caspase activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The defect in lymphocyte activation and protective immunity suggested that caspase-8 had additional signaling roles in lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal pro-domain is also called the long pro-domain and this contains the caspase activation domain (CARD) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • One site closely resembles the catalytic site of other caspases, whereas the second has no 'activation loop', disrupting the catalytic machinery in that particular active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before activation can occur, caspase-9 has to be processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation occurs when caspase-9 dimerizes, and there are two different ways for which this can occur: Caspase-9 is auto-activated when it binds to apaf-1(apoptosome), as apaf-1 oligomerizes the precursor molecules of pro-caspase-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key feature of caspases in the cell is that they are present as zymogens, termed procaspases, which are inactive until a biochemical change causes their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In intrinsic activation, cytochrome c from the mitochondria works in combination with caspase-9, apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), and ATP to process procaspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) extract has been shown to inhibit the activation of caspase 3 in B-amyloid treated human neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of caspase-11 by LPS is known to cause the activation of other caspase proteins, leading to septic shock, pyroptosis, and often organismal death. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRIF activation is necessary for the upregulation of pro-caspase-11 (an inactive precursor to active caspase-11) expression and caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria activate IFN-induced guanylate binding proteins, which are thought to mediate caspase-11 activation by promoting vacuolar lysis and release of bacteria and the LPS they produce into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 activation by direct binding to LPS represents a novel and unprecedented mechanism for caspase activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 activation results in pyroptosis, a form of lytic cell death that releases inflammatory molecules such as ATP, HMGB1 and IL-1α from the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to the importance of CARD-CARD interactions in inflammasome formation, many COPs are known inhibitors of Caspase activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, ICEBERG nucleates the formation of Caspase-1 filaments and is thus incorporated into the filaments, but lacks the ability to inhibit the activation of inflammasomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it is thought to inhibit Caspase-1 activation by interfering with the interaction of Caspase-1 with other important CARD containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, some POPs (Pyrin only proteins) are also known to regulate Caspase-1 activation through inhibition of inflammasome activation by binding to and blocking PYD interactions, which also play a role in the formation of the inflammasomes, though the exact mechanisms are not yet well established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 activation is a cell requirement during early stages of the skeletal myoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that the activation of caspases in response to viral infection contributes to the range of antigenic peptides presented by the infected cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. (abcam.com)
  • residues
  • Under normal circumstances, caspases recognize tetra-peptide sequences on their substrates and hydrolyze peptide bonds after aspartic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sf caspase-1 proenzyme is cleaved after the amino acid residues Asp-28 and Asp-195, resulting in a smaller 12 kDa fragment and a larger 19 kDa fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • DFFA is encoded by an alternatively encrypted mRNAs originating two distinct forms: short (ICAD-S) and long (ICAD-L), which act like a specific chaperone ensuring the correct CAD's folding Besides, it contains two aspartic acid residues (Asp117 and Asp224) where CAD is identified and, consequently, it stays bounded until Caspase-3 splits this union. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterotetramer
  • When the procaspase is cleaved at a particular residue, the active heterotetramer can then be formed by hydrophobic interactions, causing four anti-parallel beta-sheets from p17 and two from p12 to come together to make a heterodimer, which in turn interacts with another heterodimer to form the full 12-stranded beta-sheet structure surrounded by alpha-helices that is unique to caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • These molecules are sufficient to activate caspase-3 in vitro, but other regulatory proteins are necessary in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-11 has been shown in vitro to be activated by Shigella flexneri infection, while a guinea pig model of Shigella infection has been shown to activate the human homolog of caspase-11, caspase-4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of peptide products from in vitro assays showed that human recombinant caspases 5 and 10 cleaved m19 at noncanonical sites to generate the antigenic epitope that activated the CTLs. (sciencemag.org)
  • human
  • To address these issues, we immunoprecipitated caspase-3 from three different human B and T cell lines that express NOS ( Fig. 1 A) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • NOS and caspase-3 expression in human lymphocyte cell lines. (sciencemag.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human active Caspase-3 aa 167-175 conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH). (abcam.com)
  • Human epitheloid carcinoma HeLa cell line, treated with staurosporine and Human recombinant caspase-3, active. (abcam.com)
  • The resulting IgG fraction is further purified by absorption on the Caspase-3 peptide (Human, amino acids 167-178) corresponding to the uncleaved Caspase 3 site sequence. (abcam.com)