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  • tumors
  • Primary brain tumors, including embryonal tumors, are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. (cancer.gov)
  • The PDQ childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are organized primarily according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • However, a convention, which has been accepted by the WHO, also separates these tumors on the basis of presumed location of origin within the central nervous system (CNS). (cancer.gov)
  • As of 2016, the WHO has proposed an integrated phenotypic and genotypic classification system for CNS tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment for more information about CNS atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Anorexia Nausea Muscle aches Generalized muscle weakness Myoclonus Decreased reflexes Ataxia Pathological reflexes Tremor Asterixis Cheyne-Stokes respiration Dysarthria Lethargy Confusion Delirium Seizures Coma (from brain swelling) Death Causes of SIADH include conditions that dysregulate ADH secretion in the central nervous system, tumors that secrete ADH, drugs that increase ADH secretion, and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • In all but one case, dates of onset of illness ranged from early July to mid-November. (cdc.gov)
  • Onset of new cases occurs most frequently in infants and the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the studies that correlate vaccination with ADEM onset use small samples or case studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Level of alpha-synuclein expression correlates with disease onset and progression, with SNCA gene triplication advancing earlier and faster than duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endemic
  • Endemic areas in the US include the midwestern, south-central, and southeastern states, particularly areas surrounding the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, the Great Lakes, and the Saint Lawrence River. (cdc.gov)
  • However, even in endemic areas, human cases are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Travelers to endemic regions do not experience many cases, with only 5 cases reported among U.S. travelers returning from Eurasia between 2000 and 2011, a rate so low that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccination only for those who will be extensively exposed in high risk areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Moreover, disruption of the blood-CSF barrier induced by binding of NMO IgG to AQP4 on the basolateral surface of choroid plexus epithelial cells may provide a unique portal for entry of the pathogenic antibody into the central nervous system. (guthyjacksonfoundation.org)
  • encephalomyelitis
  • When a person has more than one demyelinating episode of ADEM, the disease is then called recurrent disseminated encephalomyelitis or multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Infections caused by mosquito-borne flaviviruses are among the diseases with higher incidence in the world. (hindawi.com)
  • Among persons aged less than 18 years, who accounted for 133 (96%) of the total number of cases in West Virginia, the incidence was 15.8 per year. (cdc.gov)
  • Dopamine
  • As a result of more and more evidence showing that the mesolimbic and the mesocortical dopamine system are key to motivation and responsiveness to reward, aboulia may be a dopamine-related dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Another survey, which consisted of true and false questions about what aboulia is distinct from, whether it is a sign, symptom, or syndrome, where lesions are present in cases of aboulia, what diseases are commonly associated with aboulia, and what current treatments are used for aboulia, was sent to 15 neurologists and 10 psychiatrists. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there is some debate about the validity of aboulia as a separate disease, experts mostly agree that aboulia is the result of frontal lesions and not with cerebellar or brainstem lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • coma
  • Swelling of brain cells causes various neurological abnormalities which in severe or acute cases can result in convulsions, coma, and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relapses following ADEM are reported in up to a quarter of patients, but the majority of these 'multiphasic' presentations following ADEM likely represent MS. ADEM is also distinguished by a loss of consciousness, coma and death, which is very rare in MS, except in severe cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The work is aimed at understanding brain-behavior relationships in humans, at systems level. (uiowa.edu)
  • There are 64 non-polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans: 23 Coxsackie A viruses, 6 Coxsackie B viruses, 28 echoviruses, and 5 other enteroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Most viruses that enter can be opportunistic and accidental pathogens, but some like herpes viruses and rabies virus have evolved in time to enter the nervous system efficiently, by exploiting the neuronal cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • severity
  • The protocol also serves as a screening tool for NDU clinical trials and enables development of clinically-useful tools such as diagnostic tests and new, sensitive scales of neurological disability, disease severity and CNS tissue destruction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some authors consider MS and its borderline forms to constitute a spectrum, differing only in chronicity, severity, and clinical course, while others consider them discretely different diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • More recently, in 2001, as part of dengue surveillance, a cluster of febrile illness cases were confirmed as SLEV infections [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The most common diseases caused by chronic viral infections are subacute-sclerosing panencephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, retrovirus disease and spongiform encephalopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative
  • By 1959, B virus was identified as the causative agent in 17 human cases, 12 of which resulted in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus and the causative agent of the disease paracoccidioidomycosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Approximately 50 cases had been identified by 2002, although only 26 were well documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • AQP4
  • Therefore, we evaluated AQP4 expression, microglial reactivity, and complement deposition at pial and ependymal surfaces and in the fourth ventricle choroid plexus in 23 autopsy cases with clinically and/or pathologically confirmed NMO or NMO spectrum disorder. (guthyjacksonfoundation.org)
  • AQP4 immunoreactivity was normal in MS cases in these regions. (guthyjacksonfoundation.org)
  • In addition, AQP4 loss, microglial reactivity, and complement deposition colocalized along the pia and ependyma only in NMO cases. (guthyjacksonfoundation.org)
  • Within the choroid plexus, AQP4 loss was coincident with C9neo immunoreactivity on epithelial cell membranes only in NMO cases. (guthyjacksonfoundation.org)
  • sporadic
  • Genome-wide association studies, which search for mutated alleles with low penetrance in sporadic cases, have now yielded many positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Epilepsy is an unpredictable, serious, and potentially fatal disorder of the nervous system, thought to be the result of faulty electrical activity in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • He noted that the majority of the cases their brain ventricles were enlarged without destruction of the brain cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypophyseal portal system is a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two populations of pericytes arise from the mesoderm and the neuroectoderm and form at the approximate location of the portal system in what will eventually become the mature brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is most famous for a paper she co-wrote in 1931 discussing the case of a child who had died at sixteen months and whose brain had a spongy white section. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • While the presence of characteristic inclusions is diagnostic for the disease, the absence of such inclusions does not necessarily indicate that the snake is not diseased or is free from the IBD virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and occurs over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus (e.g., morphine, cocaine, sexual intercourse, gambling, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADHD (often highly debated & controversial) is now largely considered to be a genuine organic disorder of the nervous system, according to the United States government. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid
  • After the virus has multiplied within the local reticuloendothelial and lymphoid systems, there is a period of 7-10 days of viraemia, during which other organs can become infected. (mja.com.au)
  • distinguish
  • However, ADEM has several features that distinguish it from MS. Unlike MS, ADEM occurs usually in children and is marked with rapid fever, although adolescents and adults can get the disease too. (wikipedia.org)
  • adolescents and adults
  • Its epidemiology has changed, with the majority of cases now primarily affecting adolescents and adults. (mja.com.au)
  • Posters produced for mumps education campaigns in response to large Canadian outbreaks that also affected many adolescents and adults ( http://www.health.alberta.ca/public/disease_conditions.html#mumps ) are shown in Box 1 . (mja.com.au)
  • fatal case
  • A fatal case occurred in a 19-month-old child in Minnesota who became ill in early August 1997 and died in November. (cdc.gov)
  • findings
  • However, serology may be negative in early disease, and results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • First, we have been able to prove that monitoring blood is a reliable method for doctors to determine response to VPA treatment in many central nervous system diseases, since our findings are not specific to SMA. (medindia.net)
  • Recent research has identified some possible new variants, like the possibility to separate primary progressive MS, PPMS, after recent findings seem to point that it is pathologically a very different disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • autonomic nervou
  • The human autonomic nervous system regulates the systemic arterial pressure to maintain constant cerebral perfusion under conditions of uneven fluid shift caused by postural change. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy-Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people affected by multiple system atrophy experience dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which commonly manifests as orthostatic hypotension, impotence, loss of sweating, dry mouth and urinary retention and incontinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • sympathetic nervou
  • The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is crucial in an organism's physiological response to outside stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which activate the adrenal medulla through acetylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stimuli travel through the sympathetic nervous system by means of preganglionic nerve fibers that emerge from the thoracic spinal chord. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemicals are created by the adrenal glands after receiving neuronal signals from the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased activity of the adrenal nerves is done through the receptors for the corticotropin-releasing factor within the ganglia within the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • This phase II trial studies how well tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil works in preventing graft-versus-host disease in patients who have undergone total-body irradiation (TBI) with or without fludarabine phosphate followed by donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We evaluated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) and blood pressure (BP, oscillatory method) and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity by inhalation of 10%O 2 and 90%N 2 with CO 2 titrated, and central chemoreflex by 7%CO 2 and 93%O 2 for 3 min. (ahajournals.org)
  • This autonomic change is more pronounced in MetSyn+OSA, in whom D+ET improves both peripheral and central chemoreflex controls. (ahajournals.org)
  • The spinal cord is the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of these spinal roots, nerves, and ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe
  • It should also not be confused with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (sometimes referred to as multiple organ failure), or with multiple organ system failure (an often-fatal complication of septic shock or other very severe illnesses or injuries). (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial symptoms: Fever Nausea Emesis (vomiting) Severe headache Muscle pain Lack of appetite Parotitis in some cases (somewhat rare) Later signs and symptoms: Maculopapular rash Petechial rash Abdominal pain Joint pain Conjunctivitis Forgetfulness The classic triad of findings for this disease are fever, rash, and history of tick bite. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more severe disorders of the sympathoadrenal system such as phaeochromocytoma (a tumor on the adrenal medulla) can affect the body's ability to maintain a homeostatic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • MECP2 Duplication Syndrome (M2DS) is a rare disease that is characterized by severe intellectual disability and impaired motor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolazamide, when used in conjunction with doxepin has been associated with a case of severe hypoglycaemia in a type II diabetic individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • When first introduced in Germany during World War I, both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for postoperative pain management of Central Powers soldiers. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently described neoplasm that has been formally recognized in the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) "Classification of Tumors of the Nervous System. (wikipedia.org)
  • After seeing more and more cases of this tumor, they are now determined to be either Grade II or Grade III, according to the WHO classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience ) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development , structure , physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational neuroscience focuses on the description of biologically plausible neurons (and neural systems ) and their physiology and dynamics, and it is therefore not concerned with biologically unrealistic disciplines such as connectionism , machine learning , artificial neural networks , artificial intelligence and computational learning theory . (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • Susac's syndrome is a very rare disease, of unknown cause, and many persons who experience it do not display the bizarre symptoms named here. (wikipedia.org)
  • William F. Hoyt was the first to call the syndrome "Susac syndrome" and later Robert Daroff asked Dr. Susac to write an editorial in Neurology about the disorder and to use the eponym of Susac syndrome in the title, forever linking this disease with him. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also used in cases of cerebral ischemia, ocular ischemic syndrome and other ocular disease caused by disturbed arterial circulation and may also have some effect on decreasing the severity of withdrawal symptoms caused by the cessation of chronic alcohol use. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/9781/mecp2-duplication-syndrome Ramocki, Melissa B. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/mecp2-duplication-syndrome/ https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/mecp2-duplication-syndrome#genes http://www.vanwrightfoundation.org/#what-is-mecp2 Van Esch, H. (2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • ticks
  • In the case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ticks are the natural hosts, serving as both reservoirs and vectors of R. rickettsii. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • The term 'computational neuroscience' was introduced by Eric L. Schwartz , who organized a conference, held in 1985 in Carmel, California , at the request of the Systems Development Foundation to provide a summary of the current status of a field which until that point was referred to by a variety of names, such as neural modeling, brain theory and neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first graduate educational program in computational neuroscience was organized as the Computational and Neural Systems Ph.D. program at the California Institute of Technology in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • This six-year program was mandated in the 1992 Energy Policy Act (PL 102-486, section 2118) and is designed to determine the potential effects on human disease from exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMF). (arthurhu.com)
  • Some diseases are excluded on the basis that there is no convincing epidemiological evidence to link them with ionising radiation exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Mastoiditis can be acute or chronic, based on the severity of disease and type and time-course of signs and symptoms. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Chronic mastoiditis, also called chronic tympanomastoiditis or chronic suppurative otitis media, is an inflammatory disease of the mastoid and middle ear that often presents with chronic drainage from the ear and hearing loss. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Excluded diseases include: Hodgkin's disease, hairy cell leukaemia, chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), malignant melanoma and mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • the vasomotor centre also becomes gradually weakened bylarge doses, so that the bloodvessels remain somewhat dilated, and thearterial tension remains low even after atropine.in dogs the stimulation of the inhibitory fibres seems sometimes tobe entirely absent after pilocarpine and muscarine, and in man this isvery frequently the case. (flippersmack.com)
  • pathogenic
  • The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which causes the microscopic strokes in the brain, retina, and inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • The accurate definition does not include the unconsciousness not caused by cerebral hypoperfusion, for example, epileptic seizures, concussion, and cerebrovascular accidents, which are persistent structural impairments, and persistent states of unconsciousness, for example, coma and cerebrovascular diseases ( Ross, 1988 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The prognosis after recovery from Ebola virus disease can include joint pains, muscular pain, skin peeling, or hair loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other compensable diseases include cataracts and leukaemias (with two exceptions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other efforts to control the spread of disease include having a cat to hunt vermin, and storing food in sealed containers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), also known as congophilic angiopathy, is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid deposits form in the walls of the blood vessels of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all cases, it is defined by the deposition of Aβ in the leptomeningal and cerebral vessel walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • deaths
  • There are about 300,000 to 500,000 cases which result in 5,000 deaths a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fever accounts for up to one-third of deaths in hospitals within the affected regions and 10 to 16% of total cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • The disease can be difficult to diagnose in the early stages, and without prompt and appropriate treatment it can be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spotted fever can be very difficult to diagnose in its early stages, and even experienced doctors who are familiar with the disease find it hard to detect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • When we examined the tissue under the microscope, we were somewhat surprised to find evidence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (blogspot.com)
  • The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerves
  • Within the brain, reception of a signal for a stressor by the hypothalamus leads to an increase in activity of the sympathoadrenal system, essentially within the nerves that send signals to the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation
  • The Compensation scheme for radiation-linked diseases is a workers compensation scheme administered by the UK government. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially the scheme only accepted claims in which a worker had died from a radiation-linked disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of December 2015, 1525 cases had been considered since the compensation scheme for radiation-linked diseases was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSRLD: The Compensation Scheme for Radiation Linked Diseases - Q & A". www.csrld.org.uk. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The mathematical models formulated in computational neuroscience are useful since they capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations , columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, since the biologically plausible mathematical models formulated in neuroscience are in most cases too complex to be solved analytically, the two terms are essentially synonyms and are used interchangeably. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, partial clearing is uncommon, and the bull's-eye pattern more often involves central redness. (wikipedia.org)
  • healthcare
  • Transmission from person to person has also been established, presenting a disease risk for healthcare workers in the clinical setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • worker
  • Pauline Cafferkey is a British nurse and aid worker who contracted Ebola virus disease in 2014 while working in Sierra Leone as part of the medical aid effort during the West African Ebola virus epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once diagnosed with or deceased from an eligible disease, the worker or surviving family members have 30 years in which to make a claim. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnetic
  • The cause of objective tinnitus provoked by palatal and middle-ear myoclonus may be identified by magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system in the Guilliain-Mollaret triangle or it may be idiopathic. (neurootology.org)
  • activate
  • The sympathoadrenal system can activate and discharge chemical messengers as a single unit to activate an organism's "fight or flight" response. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The sympathoadrenal system works to return the body to homeostasis through the activation or inactivation of the adrenal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The mastoid air cell system is in functional and anatomic continuity with the middle ear, and inflammation of the middle ear is often associated with mastoid fluid or mucosal inflammation. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • The International Classification of Disease (ICD-11) which is due to be finalised in 2017 will have functional disorders within the neurology section for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • These tumors, papillary tumors in this case, have no known predisposing genetic characteristics, as stated by Dr. Janss when I interviewed her. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The Multimammate rat can quickly produce a large number of offspring, tends to colonize human settlements increasing the risk of rodent-human contact, and is found throughout the west, central and eastern parts of the African continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Mice treated with an experimental ASO administered through the central nervous system had a reduction of MECP2 protein to normal levels and symptoms of hypoactivity, anxiety, and abnormal social behavior were resolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • What some people call the human form of Mad Cow Disease. (blogspot.com)
  • Here's one possible clue: The disease sometimes shows up in clusters in people who live near each other. (blogspot.com)
  • The disease does not appear to be transmissible between people, by other animals, or through food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate rat. (wikipedia.org)