• citation needed
  • citation needed] There was one study done that shows 60 percent of the children with disabilities come forth about being bullied regularly, versus 25 percent of the students who are being bullied with no disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] All these studies have shown that TBS can be used as a clinical risk factor for osteoporotic fracture since it is reversible (with or without treatment), quantitative and independent of BMD. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • As an example, of the 91,523 women in the Nurses' Health Study who did not have cancer at baseline and who were followed for 14 years, 2,341 women had developed breast cancer by 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • A new cohort mortality study was conducted of all male workers at the site, not just those exposed to vinyl-chloride (75014) gas. (cdc.gov)
  • A 23-year prospective study of 12,000 male British physicians aged 48-78, found that overall mortality was significantly lower in current drinkers compared to non-drinkers even after correction for ex-drinkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found age-dependent mortality risks of low-to-moderate alcohol use: an increased risk for individuals aged 16-34 (due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ (due to lower incidence of ischemic heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • hypotheses
  • Although multiple hypotheses have been suggested as potential triggers that cause vitiligo, studies strongly imply that changes in the immune system are responsible for the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • subjects
  • Individuals exposed to the agent under study (index subjects) are followed over time and their health status is observed and recorded during the course of the study. (gfmer.ch)
  • In order to compare the occurrence of disease in exposed subjects with its occurrence in non-exposed subjects, the health status of a group of individuals not exposed to the agent under study (control subjects) is followed in the same way as that of the group of index subjects. (gfmer.ch)
  • The relative risk is the ratio of the incidence rate of index subjects to that of control subjects. (gfmer.ch)
  • In fact, a critical and challenging aspect of population-based case-control study designs is how to develop a scientifically sound and cost-effective method for identifying and enrolling control subjects. (lww.com)
  • Ideally, this base is the population that spawned the case subjects. (lww.com)
  • The defined population base will depend on the source of case subjects: medical practices or hospitals, health plans, or population-based registries. (lww.com)
  • Furthermore, when using hospital- or clinic-based control subjects, we must guard against the potential for unrecognized shared causes for the case-defining disease and the diseases or conditions of patients selected for recruitment as control subjects. (lww.com)
  • RDD has been a favored method for identifying population-based control subjects. (lww.com)
  • equally
  • Although specifically concerned with malaria, many of these issues are equally relevant to case-control studies of other infectious and parasitic diseases in a tropical environment. (omicsonline.org)
  • A 2013 study found that CCSVI is equally rare in people with and without MS, while narrowing of the cervical veins is equally common. (wikipedia.org)
  • participants
  • In this situation, one may choose to assay all of the cases, and also, for each case, select a certain number of women to assay from the risk set of participants who have not yet failed (i.e. those who have not developed breast cancer before the particular case in question has developed breast cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk set is often restricted to those participants who are matched to the case on variables such as age, which reduces the variability of effect estimates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the covariate is not measured for all participants, the nested case control model is both less expensive than a full cohort analysis and more efficient than taking a simple random sample from the full cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychiatric
  • In some cases these substance induced psychiatric disorders can persist long after detoxification, such as prolonged psychosis or depression after amphetamine or cocaine abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases these drug induced psychiatric disorders fade away with prolonged abstinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Programme
  • There are many known cases in which the disabled have been abused by staff of a care institution, such as the case revealed in a BBC Panorama programme on a Castlebeck care home (Winterbourne View) near Bristol which led to its closure and the suspension or dismissal of some of the staff. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control studies always reflect true associations which can be universally generalized. (gfmer.ch)
  • The study findings indicated that workers exposed to vinyl-chloride gas experienced a significant excess of liver cancer, particularly the rare angiosarcoma of the liver. (cdc.gov)
  • less
  • One study found less than 30% of 1031 potential promoter regions contain a putative TATA box motif in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Cases and controls generally are matched according to specific characteristics (eg, age, sex, or duration of disease) to reduce by these variables. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • While scholars differ on conceptualizations of homelessness, whether it is a just temporary state through which people pass or if it is a permanent trait that emanates from individual characteristics, studies indicate for families, homelessness is a temporary state that is often resolved by the provision of subsidized housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Ways to account for the random sampling include conditional logistic regression, and using inverse probability weighting to adjust for missing covariates among those who are not selected into the study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the incident cases, 367 men died from prostate cancer. (lww.com)
  • results
  • The results may be confounded by other factors, to the extent of giving the opposite answer to better studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that the data is already available for collation and analysis means that a case-control study is useful when quick results are desired, perhaps when clues are sought for what is causing a sudden disease outbreak. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Further studies of the relationship between CCSVI and MS have had variable results, with many failing to reproduce the association between MS and CCSVI. (wikipedia.org)
  • logistic regression
  • Failing to do so, such as by treating the cases and selected controls as the original cohort and performing a logistic regression, which is common, can result in biased estimates whose null distribution is different from what is assumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A study published on Wednesday claims to have found a link between influenza vaccination and miscarriage, and antivaxers are gloating. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • A genomewide association study found approximately 36 independent susceptibility loci for generalized vitiligo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect goes to the extent that, when only fully independent studies are considered, no association at all is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, in a study trying to show that people who smoke (the attribute) are more likely to be diagnosed with lung cancer (the outcome), the cases would be persons with lung cancer, the controls would be persons without lung cancer (not necessarily healthy), and some of each group would be smokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • One of the most significant triumphs of the case-control study was the demonstration of the link between tobacco smoking and lung cancer, by Richard Doll and Bradford Hill. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Dr. Klaus Lauer (born 1950) is a German neuroepidemologist, mostly known for his work on multiple sclerosis (MS). Klaus Joachim Lauer was born in 1950 and studied medicine in Frankfurt (Germany) from 1968 to 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • inclusion of sick people is sometimes appropriate, as the control group should represent those at risk of becoming a case. (wikipedia.org)
  • They then compare how often the group of cases had been exposed to the suspected cause (risk factor), versus how often the controls had been exposed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Should any member of the control population be diagnosed with the disease under study, it must be guaranteed that the individual would be identified as a member of the case group. (lww.com)
  • course of the study
  • This study was described as part of a text book and took the reader through the same steps that the investigator took when conducting the actual study to allow the student to solve the same problems that the investigator solved in the course of the study. (cdc.gov)
  • Authors
  • The poor reproducibility across studies and diagnostic modalities has led some authors to conclude that CCVSI might be nothing more than a clinically irrelevant sonographic construct. (wikipedia.org)
  • condition
  • Patients from hospitals and clinics may not represent the case base population if referral patterns vary by disease or condition. (lww.com)
  • population-based
  • Historically, sources of population-based controls for case-control studies have included hospitals and clinics, random-digit dialing (RDD) or telephone directories, electoral rolls and other "population" registers, neighborhood or area surveys, Medicare beneficiary files, and department of motor vehicle (DMV) lists of registered or licensed drivers. (lww.com)
  • another
  • It has been purported that there is a genetic risk factor for NMS, since identical twins have both presented with NMS in one case, and a mother and two of her daughters have presented with NMS in another case. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • In several situations they have greater statistical power than cohort studies, which must often wait for a 'sufficient' number of disease events to accrue. (wikipedia.org)