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  • cranial
  • Elevated pressure inside the cavernous sinus and alterations in venous drainage account for the observed clinical signs, including conjunctival injection, proptosis, decreased visual acuity, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and cranial nerve palsies. (harvard.edu)
  • In common usage, "sinus" usually refers to the paranasal sinuses, which are air cavities in the cranial bones, especially those near the nose and connecting to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of sinus cavities within the cranial bone (skull) is essential for the following reasons: Sinus cavities allow for voice resonance They help filter and add moisture to any air that is inhaled through the nasal passages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all seven cases operated on, the lesions were excluded without inflicting any additional damage to the third through sixth cranial nerves, and in five cases carotid patency was preserved. (thejns.org)
  • ocular
  • Anterior drainage typically leads to the most dramatic ocular findings and enlargement of the superior orbital vein, the latter often detectable with CT or MRI. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical
  • Clinical clues to fistulas are dilated, and often "arterialized" conjunctival vessels, elevated intraocular pressure, and dilated retinal veins. (harvard.edu)
  • 1 Direct fistulas are high flow, frequently follow trauma, and tend to have a dramatic clinical presentation. (bmj.com)
  • We sought to investigate the perfusion abnormality of the pituitary gland secondary to dural AVFs in the cavernous sinus and to clarify its clinical importance. (ajnr.org)
  • Classification correlates venous drainage patterns with increasingly aggressive neurological clinical course. (wikipedia.org)
  • paranasal
  • If one or more of the paired paranasal sinuses or air cavities becomes inflamed, it leads to an infection called sinusitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transverse
  • The most common signs/symptoms of DAVFs are: Pulsatile tinnitus Occipital bruit Headache Visual impairment Papilledema Pulsatile tinnitus is the most common symptom in patients, and it is associated with transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVFs. (wikipedia.org)
  • K11.4) Salivary gland fistula (K31.6) Fistula of stomach and duodenum (K31.6) Gastrocolic fistula (K31.6) Gastrojejunocolic fistula - after a Billroth II a fistula forms between the transverse colon and the upper jejunum (which, post Billroth II, is attached to the remainder of the stomach). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral
  • Cerebral angiography was performed demonstrating an indirect CCF supplied by small branches of both the right and left internal and external carotid arteries with primary venous drainage into the right superior ophthalmic vein. (ovid.com)
  • symptoms
  • with the affected individual displaying symptoms such as congestion, post nasal drip, halitosis, a runny nose as well as sinus pressure and pain in the affected areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • feces
  • Fistulas may also develop between the vagina and the large intestine (a enterovaginal fistula) so that feces leaks from the vagina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If left unrepaired, obstetric fistulas cause women to constantly leak urine and feces. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Various surgical procedures are commonly used, most commonly fistulotomy, placement of a seton (a cord that is passed through the path of the fistula to keep it open for draining), or an endorectal flap procedure (where healthy tissue is pulled over the internal side of the fistula to keep feces or other material from reinfecting the channel). (wikipedia.org)
  • trachea
  • There are several types of TEFs categorized by where the fistula is located and how the esophagus and trachea are connected, but all are life-threatening and require prompt surgery to repair. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Classification
  • The reported result of the DSA examination regarding the presence, location, and classification 2 of the fistula was used as the criterion standard against which the performance of the trMRA was compared. (ajnr.org)
  • often
  • A person with a sinus infection often has nasal congestion with thick nasal secretions, fever, and cough (WebMD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I dural fistulas are often asymptomatic, do not have a high risk of bleeding and do not necessarily need to be treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various causes of fistula include: Treatment for fistula varies depending on the cause and extent of the fistula, but often involves surgical intervention combined with antibiotic therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases the fistula is temporarily covered, for example a fistula caused by cleft palate is often treated with a palatal obturator to delay the need for surgery to a more appropriate age. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • When diagnosing a sinus infection, one can identify which sinus cavity the infection is located in by the term given to the cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethmoiditis refers to an infection in the ethmoid sinus cavity/ies, frontal sinusitis refers to an infection occurring in the frontal sinus cavity/ies, antritis is used to refer to an infection in the maxillary sinus cavity/ies whilst spenoiditis refers to an infection in the sphenoid sinus cavity/ies. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sinus infection can have a number of causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Drainage pathways may affect the clinic presentation and also change treatment approach. (hindawi.com)
  • It is important to note that surgical treatment of a fistula without diagnosis or management of the underlying condition, if any, is not recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • compression
  • Patients using this method are told to compress the carotid with the opposite hand for approximately 10 minutes daily, and gradually increasing the frequency and duration of compression. (wikipedia.org)