• cytoskeletal
  • Cytoskeletal motor proteins transport and position a variety of macromolecules, organelles and mRNAs in the cell interior ( Vale, 2003 ), but how these motors are themselves targeted to specific locations within the cell is an important unsolved question. (elifesciences.org)
  • genes
  • A large number of illnesses and diseases are caused by mutations in alleles of the genes that regulate the production of actin or of its associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • comprise
  • The formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is a key step in this pathway, and the ESCRT proteins comprise the main machinery of MVB biogenesis (Hanson & Cashikar, 2012 ). (embopress.org)
  • dynein
  • Many of the suppressor proteins, including two dynein light chains, localize to subcellular sites that overlap with those reported by others for the dynein heavy chain. (plos.org)
  • Many of the proteins that specifically influence dynein localized to subcellular sites where the dynein heavy chain has been reported by others to be found. (plos.org)
  • The dynein ACs provide cargo docking sites and often are encoded by multigene families in any one species [reviewed in 1, (plos.org)
  • Each molecule of the dynein motor is a complex protein assembly composed of many smaller polypeptide subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins, while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other projection, the extended tail, binds to the light intermediate, intermediate and light chain subunits which attach dynein to its cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The light intermediate chain, which is a member of the Ras superfamily, mediates the attachment of several cargo adaptors to the dynein motor. (wikipedia.org)
  • adapter
  • Laa1 interacted with the clathrin-associated adapter complex AP-1 and was important for the correct localization of the AP-1 complex in Golgi/endosomes, establishing the evolutionary conservation of the function of this protein in AP-1 mediated endosomal trafficking. (cannabinoid-receptor.com)
  • Gene
  • Cloning of the sip1+ Gene and Construction of Tagged Its4 Strains To clone its4+ gene, its4-1 mutant was transformed using an S. pombe genomic DNA library constructed in the vector pDB248. (cannabinoid-receptor.com)
  • kinase
  • Both Imp1p and Cut15p are required for the efficient nuclear import of both an SV40 nuclear localization signal-containing reporter protein and the Pap1p component of the stress response MAP kinase pathway. (genetics.org)
  • A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is conducted by specialized enzymes of the STE protein kinase group. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
  • Straub continued to work on actin, and in 1950 reported that actin contains bound ATP and that, during polymerization of the protein into microfilaments, the nucleotide is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate (which remain bound to the microfilament). (wikipedia.org)
  • green fluores
  • The assay makes use of a fluorescent reporter, Rosella, which is a dual-emission biosensor comprising a relatively pH-stable red fluorescent protein linked to a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein. (jove.com)
  • amounts
  • In 1942, Straub developed a novel technique for extracting muscle protein that allowed him to isolate substantial amounts of relatively pure actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • filaments
  • An actin protein is the monomeric subunit of two types of filaments in cells: microfilaments, one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton, and thin filaments, part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The precise tissue-specific and temporal regulation of nuclear protein import is also critical in the regulation of cell cycle progression and in developmental and signal transduction pathways (reviewed in K affman and O'S hea 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • Considering the relevance of yeast cell factories for commercial purposes and the tight interrelation between environmental stresses and protein folding and secretion, such comprehensive studies are currently emerging as promising platforms for systematic yeast strain engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of their ends (the 'plus' end) explores the outskirts of the cell, growing and shrinking through the addition and loss of protein building blocks. (elifesciences.org)
  • transport
  • The nuclear import of classical nuclear localization signal-containing proteins depends on importin-α transport receptors. (genetics.org)
  • The importin-β family of transport receptors, also called karyopherins, or more specifically, importins or exportins, carries cargoes both into and out of the nucleus. (genetics.org)
  • The importin-β subunit of both of these types of transport complex targets them to the NE by binding to proteins at the nuclear pore complex (reviewed in G orlich and K utay 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • encode
  • The L genome of the H. uvarum L-dsRNA virion HuV-L was shown to encode a 77-kDa major capsid protein. (jove.com)
  • targets
  • Such studies allowed for the identification of novel targets related with protein trafficking and ergosterol biosynthesis for improved recombinant protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functions
  • Although various kinds of proteins have been found to distribute or immigrate to this organelle, their functions have still not been completely worked out. (biomedsearch.com)
  • tracks
  • Protein kinases that are not listed could not be scored on both tracks in both species, due to sequence gaps or lack of synteny. (pnas.org)