• viral proteins
  • MDCK cells (10 4 or 5 x 10 3 per well) were cultured in 96- or 384-well plates, infected with PR8 and viral proteins were detected using anti-M2 followed by an IR dye-conjugated secondary antibody. (jove.com)
  • viruses
  • The protocol described here can also be used to design and study recombinant subunit vaccines against other viruses with class I fusion proteins, for example, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Ebola virus, influenza virus, as well as Nipah and Handra viruses. (jove.com)
  • Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are two surface proteins of influenza viruses which are known to play important roles in the viral life cycle and the induction of protective immune responses 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Using the Virochip, we have identified the full spectrum of viruses associated with respiratory infections, including cases of unexplained critical illness in hospitalized patients, with a sensitivity equivalent to or superior to conventional clinical testing 2-5 . (jove.com)
  • The Virochip has also been used to identify novel viruses, including the SARS coronavirus 6,7 , a novel rhinovirus clade 5 , XMRV (a retrovirus linked to prostate cancer) 8 , avian bornavirus (the cause of a wasting disease in parrots) 9 , and a novel cardiovirus in children with respiratory and diarrheal illness 10 . (jove.com)
  • Polypyrimidine Tract B
  • Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and nPTB binding sites in GDVII affects neurovirulence. (asmscience.org)
  • synthesis
  • In addition, the identification of cell-specific RNA-binding proteins that affect translation and regulate the synthesis of L* versus the polyprotein is also likely to help in the understanding of picornaviral gene expression and TMEV disease pathogenesis. (asmscience.org)
  • influenza
  • The His274?Tyr (H274Y) oseltamivir (Tamiflu) resistance mutation causes a substantial decrease in the total levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in early isolates of human seasonal H1N1 influenza, and in the swine-origin pandemic H1N1. (jove.com)
  • However the protocol can be easily adapted for HA and NA proteins expressed by any other influenza A and B virus strains. (jove.com)
  • The method we describe here to produce these molecules is straight forward and can facilitate research in influenza laboratories, since it allows for production of large amounts of proteins fast and at a low cost. (jove.com)
  • Current clinical diagnoses of influenza infections are based on serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction, direct specimen immunofluorescence and cell culture 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Influenza H7N9 and H1N1pdm can cause severe human infections. (jove.com)
  • pandemic
  • Therefore, precise diagnosis of the infecting strain and rapid high-throughput screening of vast numbers of clinical samples is paramount to control the spread of pandemic infections. (jove.com)
  • TMEV
  • It focuses on the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced disease because of the extensive investigations of this topic as well as the remarkable ability of this virus to establish lifelong infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and to produce an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. (asmscience.org)
  • This is the proposed course of disease in TMEV infection in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of mouse strains are not susceptible to the pathology associated with TMEV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Recombinant HA (rHA) and NA (rNA) proteins are important reagents for immunological assays such as ELISPOT and ELISA, and are also in wide use for vaccine standardization, antibody discovery, isolation and characterization. (jove.com)
  • M2 5 and hemagglutinin 1 are two major marker proteins used in many different diagnostic assays. (jove.com)
  • humans
  • The recent identification of SAFV infection as a frequent one in humans has focused attention on whether this virus causes disease in humans. (asmscience.org)
  • genes
  • These key antiviral cytokines act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to induce hundreds of interferon‐stimulated genes ( ISG s), whose protein products restrict viral entry, replication and budding. (embopress.org)
  • induce
  • Based on their safety profile and ability to induce potent immune responses against infections, subunit vaccines have been used as candidates for a wide variety of pathogens 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • Analyses
  • Structure-function analyses of the BRCA1 have been complicated by the lack of a robust assay for the full length BRCA1 protein and the difficulties inherent in working with cell lines that express hypomorphic BRCA1 protein 1,2,3,4,5 . (jove.com)
  • nucleus
  • Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. (mdpi.com)
  • targets
  • LGP 2‐mediated antagonism of ds RNA ‐mediated RNA i may help ensure that viral ds RNA substrates are preserved in order to serve as targets of antiviral ISG proteins. (embopress.org)
  • mRNA
  • Unlike mammalian mRNA picornaviruses do not have a 5' cap but a virally encoded protein known as VPg. (wikipedia.org)
  • We developed a system whereby the endogenous BRCA1 protein in a cell was acutely depleted by RNAi targeting the 3'-UTR of the BRCA1 mRNA and replaced by co-transfecting a plasmid expressing a BRCA1 variant. (jove.com)
  • strains
  • Collectively, we conclude that IR dye-based protein detection system can help diagnose infecting viral strains and precisely enumerate the titer of the infecting pathogens. (jove.com)
  • family
  • Family Caliciviridae Icosahedral, nonenveloped virions about 35-39 nm in diameter, composed of 32 capsomeres and 180 molecules of a single capsid protein. (britannica.com)
  • transcription
  • The GDVII L protein is specific in that it down-regulates the anti-viral response by inhibition of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) after it is activated by hyperphosphorylation, but before it is able to enhance Interferon-β transcription by binding to the gene's promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Finally, a SARS pseudovirus neutralization assay was introduced in the protocol and used to detect the neutralizing activity of sera of mice vaccinated with rRBD protein. (jove.com)
  • seasonal
  • We first test the ability of several computational approaches to retrospectively identify the secondary mutations that enhanced levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in seasonal H1N1 shortly before the emergence of oseltamivir resistance. (jove.com)
  • The low serum antibody response of ERBV appears to allow the continual, seasonal re-infection of horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • 109) were single infections with GLRaV-3, followed by GLRaV-2 (4%, n? (jove.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequence data from the single infection GLRaV-3 samples produced seven well-supported GLRaV-3 variants, of which three represented 71% of all GLRaV-3 positive samples in Napa Valley. (jove.com)
  • express
  • Some HERV loci still express proteins that have been associated with several pathologies including cancer 7-10 . (jove.com)
  • cell
  • The functional analysis of missense mutations can be complicated by the presence in the cell of the endogenous protein. (jove.com)
  • major
  • Furthermore, chitosan hydrogel is easy to use and can suppress bacterial infection, which is the major risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries. (jove.com)