• viral proteins
  • MDCK cells (10 4 or 5 x 10 3 per well) were cultured in 96- or 384-well plates, infected with PR8 and viral proteins were detected using anti-M2 followed by an IR dye-conjugated secondary antibody. (jove.com)
  • Polypyrimidine Tract B
  • Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and nPTB binding sites in GDVII affects neurovirulence. (asmscience.org)
  • influenza
  • Current clinical diagnoses of influenza infections are based on serologic testing, polymerase chain reaction, direct specimen immunofluorescence and cell culture 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • The His274?Tyr (H274Y) oseltamivir (Tamiflu) resistance mutation causes a substantial decrease in the total levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in early isolates of human seasonal H1N1 influenza, and in the swine-origin pandemic H1N1. (jove.com)
  • However the protocol can be easily adapted for HA and NA proteins expressed by any other influenza A and B virus strains. (jove.com)
  • The method we describe here to produce these molecules is straight forward and can facilitate research in influenza laboratories, since it allows for production of large amounts of proteins fast and at a low cost. (jove.com)
  • Influenza H7N9 and H1N1pdm can cause severe human infections. (jove.com)
  • pandemic
  • Therefore, precise diagnosis of the infecting strain and rapid high-throughput screening of vast numbers of clinical samples is paramount to control the spread of pandemic infections. (jove.com)
  • correctly folded
  • Briefly, the recombinant RBD protein (rRBD) was expressed in culture supernatant of mammalian 293T cells to obtain a correctly folded protein with proper conformation and high immunogenicity 6 . (jove.com)
  • TMEV
  • It focuses on the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced disease because of the extensive investigations of this topic as well as the remarkable ability of this virus to establish lifelong infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and to produce an immune-mediated demyelinating disease. (asmscience.org)
  • This is the proposed course of disease in TMEV infection in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of mouse strains are not susceptible to the pathology associated with TMEV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Unlike mammalian mRNA picornaviruses do not have a 5' cap but a virally encoded protein known as VPg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. (mdpi.com)
  • We developed a system whereby the endogenous BRCA1 protein in a cell was acutely depleted by RNAi targeting the 3'-UTR of the BRCA1 mRNA and replaced by co-transfecting a plasmid expressing a BRCA1 variant. (jove.com)
  • assays
  • M2 5 and hemagglutinin 1 are two major marker proteins used in many different diagnostic assays. (jove.com)
  • Recombinant HA (rHA) and NA (rNA) proteins are important reagents for immunological assays such as ELISPOT and ELISA, and are also in wide use for vaccine standardization, antibody discovery, isolation and characterization. (jove.com)
  • humans
  • The recent identification of SAFV infection as a frequent one in humans has focused attention on whether this virus causes disease in humans. (asmscience.org)
  • Analyses
  • Structure-function analyses of the BRCA1 have been complicated by the lack of a robust assay for the full length BRCA1 protein and the difficulties inherent in working with cell lines that express hypomorphic BRCA1 protein 1,2,3,4,5 . (jove.com)
  • strains
  • Collectively, we conclude that IR dye-based protein detection system can help diagnose infecting viral strains and precisely enumerate the titer of the infecting pathogens. (jove.com)
  • vaccines
  • Based on their safety profile and ability to induce potent immune responses against infections, subunit vaccines have been used as candidates for a wide variety of pathogens 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • regulatory
  • The GDVII L protein is specific in that it down-regulates the anti-viral response by inhibition of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) after it is activated by hyperphosphorylation, but before it is able to enhance Interferon-β transcription by binding to the gene's promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also appears that the amount of transcriptional regulatory motifs is at least 4.5x higher than the one corresponding to protein-coding exons. (jove.com)
  • The key element in the choice between pathways is a transcriptional regulatory protein, the product of gene cl, which is transcribed as a result of antitermination by gene 24 protein. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • family
  • Family Caliciviridae Icosahedral, nonenveloped virions about 35-39 nm in diameter, composed of 32 capsomeres and 180 molecules of a single capsid protein. (britannica.com)
  • mice
  • Finally, a SARS pseudovirus neutralization assay was introduced in the protocol and used to detect the neutralizing activity of sera of mice vaccinated with rRBD protein. (jove.com)
  • seasonal
  • We first test the ability of several computational approaches to retrospectively identify the secondary mutations that enhanced levels of surface-expressed neuraminidase protein and activity in seasonal H1N1 shortly before the emergence of oseltamivir resistance. (jove.com)
  • The low serum antibody response of ERBV appears to allow the continual, seasonal re-infection of horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • P2 and P3 proteins assist in infectivity of the picornavirus to hijack and interfere with host cell functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other temperate phages, P22 can follow either of two pathways following infection of a sensitive host cell it can grow lyrically, or form a lysogen. (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • single
  • 109) were single infections with GLRaV-3, followed by GLRaV-2 (4%, n? (jove.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequence data from the single infection GLRaV-3 samples produced seven well-supported GLRaV-3 variants, of which three represented 71% of all GLRaV-3 positive samples in Napa Valley. (jove.com)
  • express
  • Some HERV loci still express proteins that have been associated with several pathologies including cancer 7-10 . (jove.com)