• pulmonary
  • They measured the effects of cardiac drugs and described various forms of dysfunction in chronic cardiac diseases and pulmonary diseases and their treatment, and developed techniques for the diagnosis of congenital heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • catheters
  • Over the next year, catheters were placed in a similar manner into the right ventricle, and measurements of pressure and cardiac output (using the Fick principle) were performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claude Bernard
  • Variations on the technique were performed over the subsequent century, with formal study of cardiac physiology being performed by Claude Bernard in the 1840s. (wikipedia.org)
  • elective
  • While elective procedures like cataract removal and cardiac catheterization can often be medically necessary, there is a yawning gray zone in which these procedures get done for tenuous indications-as my former colleagues illustrated. (merriam-webster.com)
  • vascular
  • Integral to the work leading to the development of the G suit was the perfection of vascular catheterization methods needed to understand the distribution of blood pressure and flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • done
  • Determination of cardiac output can be done by releasing a small amount of saline solution (either chilled or at room temperature) in one area of the heart and measuring the drop in blood temperature over time in another area of the heart. (wikipedia.org)