• nutrients
  • These contain water and nutrients, through which the microalgae circulate, absorbing light and carbon and producing biomass. (ingenia.org.uk)
  • Microalgae may be cultivated on freshwater, saltwater lakes with eutrophication, oceans, marginal lands, deserts, etc. (3) Microalgae can effectively remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and heavy metals from wastewaters. (mdpi.com)
  • Microalgae are at the forefront of this new generation of novel feed ingredients, which can serve as a significant raw material for biofuel production and a source of nutrients for animal feeding programs (Lum et al. (umn.edu)
  • 2013). Furthermore, various phytochemicals and functional nutrients present in microalgae make it a potentially attractive alternative to growth promoting antibiotics in animal feeds. (umn.edu)
  • Therein, the culture suspension, which contains all necessary nutrients and carbon dioxide, is pumped around in a cycle, being directly illuminated from sunlight via the liquid's surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible to accumulate the desired products in microalgae to a large extent by changing environmental factors, like temperature, illumination, pH, CO2 supply, salt and nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • The simplest product from CO2 reduction is carbon monoxide (CO), but for fuel development, further reduction is needed, and a key step also needing further development is the transfer of hydride anions to CO. Also in this case, the use of microorganisms has been explored. (wikipedia.org)
  • feedstock
  • As an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production, microalgae have the following advantages over conventional oil crops such as soybeans: (1) microalgae have simple structures, but high photosynthetic efficiency with a growth doubling time as short as 24 h. (mdpi.com)
  • Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Land use, existing biomass industries and relevant conversion technologies must be considered when evaluating suitability of developing biomass as feedstock for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • First and foremost, deCOx does not require high hydrogen pressures, meaning that it has the potential to be performed at smaller decentralized facilities that could be placed closer to the biomass source and lead to a drastic reduction in the economic and environmental costs associated with the transportation of feedstock and products to and from these facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • emissions
  • This is used to produce heat and biomass, as well as control light, provide shade and absorb CO₂ emissions. (ingenia.org.uk)
  • Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) has been suggested to complement and compensate for insufficient emissions reductions, through increasing natural carbon sinks, engineering new carbon sinks, or combining natural uptake with engineered storage. (springer.com)
  • and how carbon flows have or may have changed due to anthropogenic activities such as ( b ) industrial era fossil fuel combustion, ( c ) when carbon dioxide removal (CDR) begins, but net CO2 emissions are positive, and ( d ) when CO 2 is removed from the atmosphere, i.e., "net negative emissions. (springer.com)
  • Burning biomass releases carbon emissions, but has been classed as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks, because plant stocks can be replaced with new growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • biodiversity
  • Without grazing pressures the standing stock of microphytes dramatically decreases The biodiversity of microalgae is enormous and they represent an almost untapped resource. (wikipedia.org)
  • These seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide many ecosystem services, including sediment stabilization, habitat and biodiversity, better water quality, and carbon and nutrient sequestration. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • Microalgae can grow 20 or 30 times faster than traditional food crops, and has no need to compete for arable land. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthetic
  • Badger MR, Gallagher A (1987) Adaptation of photosynthetic CO 2 and HCO 3 -accumulation by the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC6301 to growth at different inorganic carbon concentrations. (springer.com)
  • oxygen
  • They are primary producers in the oceans that convert water and carbon dioxide to biomass and oxygen in the presence of sunlight. (wikipedia.org)
  • they produce approximately half of the atmospheric oxygen and use simultaneously the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to grow photoautotrophically. (wikipedia.org)
  • High accumulation rates, low oxygen, low sediment conductivity and slower microbial decomposition rates all encourage carbon burial and carbon accumulation in these coastal sediments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is obtained by heating dried biomass without oxygen in a reactor at a temperature of about 500 °C with subsequent cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bio-oil exhibited a higher carbon and nitrogen content, lower oxygen content than wood bio-oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon-based materials can be heated at high temperatures in the absence (pyrolysis) or presence of oxygen, air and/or steam (gasification). (wikipedia.org)
  • In deCOx reactions oxygen is eliminated in the form of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Today cultured microalgae is used as direct feed for humans and land-based farm animals, and as feed for cultured aquatic species such as molluscs and the early larval stages of fish and crustaceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of microalgae species are produced in hatcheries and are used in a variety of ways for commercial purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are thousands of different species of microalgae, which vary in nutritional composition. (umn.edu)
  • The general nutritional characteristics of several species of microalgae are shown in table 1. (umn.edu)
  • Microalgae such as microphytes constitute the basic foodstuff for numerous aquaculture species, especially filtering bivalves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon sequestration rates in seagrass meadows vary depending on the species, characteristics of the sediment, and depth of the habitats, but on average the carbon burial rate is approximately 138 g C m−2 yr−1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species is defined by its inability to use organic carbon as a food source, making the species an obligate autotroph. (wikipedia.org)
  • sunlight
  • The maximum fatty acid yield was achieved for both phototrophic (sunlight is the only energy source) and mixotrophic (utilize both sunlight and energy from carbon source) cultures at 55.15 and 111.96 mg/L, respectively, under cell exposure to blue light (470 nm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitigation
  • We also identify future research that will be needed if CDR is to play a role in climate change mitigation, these include coordinated studies to better understand (i) the underlying mechanisms of each method, (ii) how they could be explicitly simulated, (iii) how reversible changes in the climate and carbon cycle are, and (iv) how to evaluate and monitor CDR. (springer.com)
  • Benemann JR (1997) CO 2 mitigation with microalgae systems. (springer.com)
  • Spirulina
  • Spirulina maxima is one of the most consumed microalgae worldwide, due to its high protein content (approx. (umn.edu)
  • Spirulina thrives at a pH around 8.5 and above, which will get more alkaline, and a temperature around 30 °C (86 °F). They are able to make their own food, and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, an alcohol fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also lower temperature processes in the region of 150-374 °C, that produce sugars by decomposing the biomass in water with or without additives. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic carbon
  • GE Water & Process Technologies, Analytical Instruments, a division of General Electric Company, is pleased to announce that its CheckPoint Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Sensor has received the top IBO Portable Instrument Design Award for 2008. (environmental-expert.com)
  • GE (NYSE: GE) today introduced its new Sievers* M5310 C Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer to measure TOC in a broad range of raw and drinking water samples. (environmental-expert.com)
  • GE (NYSE: GE) today announced the release of its new Sievers* M9 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, which has been designed to measure TOC in a broad range of samples from ultrapure water to process waters. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any source of organic carbon that is renewed rapidly as part of the carbon cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently global seagrass meadows are estimated to store as much as 19.9 Pg (gigaton, or billion tons) of organic carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon primarily accumulates in marine sediments, which are anoxic and thus continually preserve organic carbon from decadal-millennial time scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists encourage protection and continued research of these ecosystems for organic carbon storage, valuable habitat and other ecosystem services. (wikipedia.org)
  • corn
  • Various forms of microalgae that have been evaluated as feed supplements demonstrated crude protein levels ranging from 14-38.2%, which at its maximum level, is almost 4.5 times the amount of crude protein in various corn products (Lum et al. (umn.edu)
  • combustion
  • The PBRs are linked in a closed loop to the building's plant room, where they are fed with carbon from combustion processes in the vicinity. (ingenia.org.uk)
  • As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like traditionally produced gasoline, it contains between 6 (hexane) and 12 (dodecane) carbon atoms per molecule and can be used in internal-combustion engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • and b) the spent catalyst regeneration method preferred in industry is the combustion of these carbon deposits by calcination in hot air, the use of carbon supports is rendered impractical, as this regeneration method would effectively destroy the catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • bioenergy
  • This is a common misconception, as bioenergy is the energy extracted from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy contained in the fuel There is a slight tendency for the word bioenergy to be favoured in Europe compared with biofuel in America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sewage sludge is a point of focus in current research for developing bioenergy from biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotenoids
  • One of the most important, and on the market best established, high value products from microalgae are carotenoids. (omicsonline.org)
  • The most commonly used carotenoids are β-carotene, astaxanthin and lutein that can be produced by various microalgae such as Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis , Chromochloris zofingiensis, Chlorella sorokiniana, etc. [ 1 , 11 , 15 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • woody
  • Mangroves are woody halophytes that form intertidal forests and provide many important ecosystem services including coastal protection, nursery grounds for coastal fish and crustaceans, forest products, recreation, nutrient filtration and carbon sequestration. (wikipedia.org)
  • And lastly still others are focused on the use of woody biomass for conversion to biogasoline using enzymatic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Carbon cycle processes determine the flow of carbon between reservoirs, (Fig. 1 a). (springer.com)
  • In contrast, indirect processes have solar energy converted to another form of energy first (such as biomass or electricity) that can then be used to produce a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • convert
  • It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation without wasting existing generating plant and infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • The biomass and heat generated by the façade elements are transported by a closed loop system to the plant room, where both forms of energy are exchanged by a separator and a heat exchanger respectively. (ingenia.org.uk)
  • Therefore, renewable, non-polluting biomass energy has been receiving more and more attention from both the academic community and industries. (mdpi.com)
  • There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. (springer.com)
  • Microalgae, together with bacteria, form the base of the food web and provide energy for all the trophic levels above them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light is used as an energy source, with solar energy being transduced to chemical energy, typically by reducing protons to hydrogen, or carbon dioxide to organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its broader sense it includes biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel, as well as the social, economic, scientific and technical fields associated with using biological sources for energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contribute to achieving the objectives of Spain in improving energy efficiency, renewable energy and other low carbon technologies is the strategic framework of its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • source
  • Some data in Table 1 [ 4 ] show microalgae are the only source of biodiesel that have the potential to completely displace fossil diesel. (mdpi.com)
  • For the construction of the facility 2.25 M€ has been made available by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (1.5 M€) and the Provincie Gelderland (0.75 M€). Microalgae Microalgae are currently seen by some persons as a promising source of biodiesel and chemical building blocks, which can be used in paint and plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • The Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology researches marine bacteria that transform carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and iron compounds, thus playing crucial roles in the global material cycle. (mpg.de)
  • solar
  • It was part-subsidised by the German federal research Zukunft Bau (future building) initiative, with Arup developing the system in collaboration with the biotechnology and microalgae company Strategic Science Consult, and Colt International, a specialist in integrated climate control, ventilation and solar shading systems. (ingenia.org.uk)
  • plant
  • The microalgae will be analysed after Dragon returns to Earth next April, looking at the genetic information to build a clearer picture of the effects of weightlessness and radiation on the plant cell. (esa.int)
  • Biomass is derived from plant materials, but can also include animal materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses make up the majority of the ocean's vegetated habitats but only equal 0.05% of the plant biomass on land. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant biomass such as leaves, stems, branches or roots, blue carbon can be sequestered for years to decades, and for thousands to millions of years in underlying plant sediments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemical constituents of plant biomass include lignins, cellulose, and hemicellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first-generation biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin can be burned as a carbon neutral fuel to produce heat and power for the processing plant and possibly for surrounding homes and businesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • monoxide
  • Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • However, the general consensus is that the lower hydrogen pressures needed more than compensates for the slightly lower carbon efficiency of deCOx relative to HDO. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • 2013). Microalgae products also exhibit elevated fat content, with ranges from 1.5-9.3%, and high levels of beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, fibers and other bioactive compounds (Van Iersel and Flammini, 2010). (umn.edu)
  • But the high acetate portion is then separated into biogasoline, water, and biomass. (wikipedia.org)