• oligosaccharides
  • Both cleft A and cleft B can bind cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin preferentially binds in cleft A, xylooligosaccharides only bind in cleft A and beta1,4,-beta1,3-mixed linked glucans only bind in cleft B. Carbohydrate-binding module family 9 (CBM9) binds to crystalline cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • While cytosolic sulfotransferases play a metabolic role by modifying small molecule substrates such as steroids, flavonoids, neurotransmitters, and phenols, carbohydrate sulfotransferases have a fundamental role in extracellular signalling and adhesion by generating unique ligands through the modification of carbohydrate scaffolds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate conformation refers to the overall three-dimensional structure adopted by a carbohydrate (saccharide) molecule as a result of the through-bond and through-space physical forces it experiences arising from its molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other compounds are known as biomolecules because they are closely associated with living organisms. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical analysis of structural feature distribution in glycomes of living organisms Taxon clustering based on similarities of glycomes (carbohydrate-based tree of life) Glycosyltransferase subdatabase (GT-explorer) Until 2015, Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) are carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion by a host's metabolism, and are made available for gut microbes, as prebiotics, to ferment or metabolize into beneficial compounds, such as short chain fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In scientific literature, the term "carbohydrate" has many synonyms, like "sugar" (in the broad sense), "saccharide", "ose", "glucide", "hydrate of carbon" or "polyhydroxy compounds with aldehyde or ketone" Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are also used with other meanings. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will include chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not normally considered carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the term is generally understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons and includes many biological carbohydrates which deviate from this formula. (wikipedia.org)
  • As extracellular compounds, sulfated carbohydrates are mediators of intercellular communication, cellular adhesion, and ECM maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern high field NMR instruments used for carbohydrate samples, typically 500 MHz or higher, are able to run a suite of 1D, 2D, and 3D experiments to determine a structure of carbohydrate compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbons
  • Typical 13C NMR chemical shifts of carbohydrate ring carbons are 60-110 ppm In the case of simple mono- and oligosaccharide molecules, all proton signals are typically separated from one another (usually at 500 MHz or better NMR instruments) and can be assigned using 1D NMR spectrum only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficient
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a laboratory test used to help detect heavy ethanol consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the bloodstream, and are an important marker for alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is elevated in the blood of heavy alcoholism but raised levels can also be found in a number of medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used with other tests, such as gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin can be a useful tool in identifying problem drinking, such as alcohol abuse or alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • The main data stored in CSDB are carbohydrate structures of bacterial, fungal, and plant origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of the beginning of 2017, the coverage on bacteria and archaea is ca. 80% of carbohydrate structures published in scientific literature in the years 1943 - 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis- a series of reaction that extends carbon chain in a carbohydrate by one carbon and one chiral centre. (slideshare.net)
  • Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis, allowing them to store energy absorbed from sunlight internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic acid
  • For example, carbohydrates often display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl (e.g. chitin), sulphate (e.g. glycosaminoglycans), carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Studies of interactions between carbohydrates and proteins are vital in understanding the potential controls of many biological processes. (rsc.org)
  • cellulose
  • Cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is a carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 3 (CBM3) is involved in cellulose binding and is found associated with a wide range of bacterial glycosyl hydrolases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 4 (CBM4) includes the two cellulose-binding domains, CBD(N1) and CBD(N2), arranged in tandem at the N terminus of the 1,4-beta-glucanase, CenC, from Cellulomonas fimi. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosyltransferase
  • Two other applications demonstrate the use of CE as an assay method for monitoring glycosyltransferase activity and for determining the association constant of carbohydrate-protein interaction. (springer.com)
  • diet
  • Peak performance can be achieved only by maintaining the proper balance of carbohydrates in the diet. (hubpages.com)
  • Carbohydrates are part of a healthful diet. (health.gov)
  • In similar fashion, germ-free mice without a microbiota might consume a diet with large quantities of potential MACs, but none of the carbohydrates would be considered MACs, since they would escape the digestive tract without being metabolized by microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) is a restrictive diet first described by Sidney V. Haas (1870-1964) in 1924 to treat celiac disease, and further refined in his 1951 medical textbook The Management of Celiac Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924, the first Specific Carbohydrate Diet for the treatment of children with celiac disease was the banana diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • After more research, he described the Specific Carbohydrate Diet as a treatment for celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in his 1951 medical textbook The Management of Celiac Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • FODMAP Low carbohydrate diet DASH diet Hou JK, Lee D, Lewis J (October 2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other diet plans, people who maintain a low-carbohydrate diet lose weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • A very low-carbohydrate diet performs slightly better than a low-fat diet for long-term weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • fiber
  • Instead of sugary options, offer healthier choices, such as fruit - a naturally sweet carbohydrate-containing snack that also provides fiber and vitamins that kids need. (kidshealth.org)
  • molecular
  • Orders of magnitude of structural information and diversity can more readily be carried in carbohydrates in comparison with peptides of the same molecular size. (rsc.org)
  • Diets
  • Low-carbohydrate diets are not well-defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used for weight loss, low-carbohydrate diets are classified as fad diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of low-carbohydrate diets, weight loss is helped by the increased feeling of fullness and a tendency towards selecting nutrient-rich food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2008 systematic review of randomized controlled studies that compared low-carbohydrate diets to low-fat/low-calorie diets found the measurements of weight, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure were significantly better in groups that followed low-carbohydrate diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of this review also found a higher rate of attrition in groups with low-fat diets, and concluded, "evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at six months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to one year", but they also called for more long-term studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • consume
  • When animals and fungi consume plants, they use cellular respiration to break down these stored carbohydrates to make energy available to cells. (wikipedia.org)