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  • enzymes
  • We also found that both mRNA expression and activity of two key rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase 2 ( Hk2 ) and phosphofructokinase 1 ( Pfk1 ), were significantly reduced in the iMS Bmal1 −/− muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crude
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Glycolysis could thus have originated from chemical constraints of the prebiotic world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prolonged nongrowth regime of P. putida on glycerol could thus be traced to the regulatory device controlling the transcription of the glp genes. (asm.org)
  • byproduct
  • Production will increase as the EU directive 2003/30/EC are implemented, which required the replacement of 5.75% of petroleum fuels with biofuel across all member states by 2010, as glycerol is a byproduct in the production of biodiesel. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymes
  • We also found that both mRNA expression and activity of two key rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase 2 ( Hk2 ) and phosphofructokinase 1 ( Pfk1 ), were significantly reduced in the iMS Bmal1 −/− muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although
  • vacuum is helpful due to the high boiling point of glycerol (290 °C). Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Antigens such as carbohydrate antigens (CA) and carcinoembryonic antigen are released from digestive tract tumour cells, and their detection in the blood would be a valuable tool to diagnose the cancer and monitor its treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined the bacterial growth in glycerol cultures while monitoring the metabolic activity of individual cells. (asm.org)
  • We show that a prolonged nongrowing state of the bacterial population can be brought about by a distinct regulatory architecture of metabolic genes when cells face specific nutrients (e.g., glycerol). (asm.org)
  • growth
  • Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, as well as the analysis of the temporal start of growth in single-cell cultures, revealed that adoption of a glycerol-metabolizing regime was not the result of a gradual change in the whole population but rather reflected a time-dependent bimodal switch between metabolically inactive (i.e., nongrowing) and fully active (i.e., growing) bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Enhancing the gene copy numbers for glpX and tktA increased L-Phe productivity from glycerol without affecting growth rate. (biomedcentral.com)