• enzymes
  • We also found that both mRNA expression and activity of two key rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase 2 ( Hk2 ) and phosphofructokinase 1 ( Pfk1 ), were significantly reduced in the iMS Bmal1 −/− muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • carbon
  • Plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis, allowing them to store energy absorbed from sunlight internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, and ion exchange to remove salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • fatty acid
  • The hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides (1) are treated with an alcohol such as ethanol (2) with catalytic base to give ethyl esters of fatty acids (3) and glycerol (4): Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • When animals and fungi consume plants, they use cellular respiration to break down these stored carbohydrates to make energy available to cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular level, glucose is transported from the blood into the cells through glucose transporters, and once in the cell, it is either stored (glycogenosis) or oxidized (glycolysis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although
  • vacuum is helpful due to the high boiling point of glycerol (290 °C). Although usually not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • product
  • needs update] Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U.S. cents per kilogram in 2011. (wikipedia.org)