• atoms
  • Formally and quantitatively, conformation is captured by description of a molecule's angles-e.g., sets of three sequential atoms (bond angles) and four sequential atoms (torsion angles, dihedral angles), where the locations and angular directions of nonbonding electrons ("lone pair electrons") must sometimes also be taken into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • The envelope conformation has four atoms in a plane while the twist form only has three. (wikipedia.org)
  • While any two arrangements of atoms in a molecule that differ by rotation about single bonds can be referred to as different conformations, conformations that correspond to local minima on the energy surface are specifically called conformational isomers or conformers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the skew conformation, the plane contains three adjacent atoms and one other with the atom with the lowest possible number exoplanar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atoms above the plane are written before the conformer label, as a superscript Atoms below the plane are written following the conformer label, as a subscript As shown by the relative structure energies in the diagram above, the chair structures are the most stable carbohydrate form. (wikipedia.org)
  • This relatively defined and stable conformation means that the hydrogen atoms of the pyranose ring are held at relatively constant angles to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because formaldehyde (n=1) and glycolaldehyde (n=2) are not generally considered to be carbohydrates, the simplest possible aldose is the triose glyceraldehyde, which only contains three carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • saccharide
  • Conformations adopted by saccharide molecules in response to the physical forces arising from their bonding and nonbonding electrons, modified by the molecule's interactions with its aqueous or other solvent environment, strongly influence their reactivity with and recognition by other molecules (processes which in turn can alter conformation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among structural properties that could be determined by NMR are primary structure (including stereochemistry), saccharide conformation, stoichiometry of substituents, and ratio of individual saccharides in a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbons
  • Typical 13C NMR chemical shifts of carbohydrate ring carbons are 60-110 ppm In the case of simple mono- and oligosaccharide molecules, all proton signals are typically separated from one another (usually at 500 MHz or better NMR instruments) and can be assigned using 1D NMR spectrum only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates with more than 4 carbons exist in an equibrium between the closed ring, or cyclic form, and the open-chain form. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformers
  • Pyranose and furanose forms can exist in different conformers and one can interconvert between the different conformations if an energy requirement is met. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three eclipsed conformations with dihedral angles of 0°, 120°, and 240° are not considered to be conformers, but are instead transition states between two conformers. (wikipedia.org)
  • While simple molecules can be described by these types of conformations, more complex molecules require the use of the Klyne-Prelog system to describe the different conformers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 They examined 15 conformers of α- and β-D-allopyranose, fifteen conformations of 3,6-anydro-4- O -methyl-D-galactitol and four conformers of β-D-glucopyranose. (comporgchem.com)
  • structure
  • A further refinement to the conformation of pyranose rings came when Sponsler and Dore (1926) realized that Sachse's mathematical treatment of six-membered rings could be applied to their X-ray structure of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • All teicoplanins share a same glycopeptide core, termed teicoplanin A3-1 - a fused ring structure to which two carbohydrates (mannose and N-acetylglucosamine) are attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellulose
  • Interactions between microfibrillar cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose 1 in an aqueous suspension Carbohydrate Polymers. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 3 (CBM3) is involved in cellulose binding and is found associated with a wide range of bacterial glycosyl hydrolases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 4 (CBM4) includes the two cellulose-binding domains, CBD(N1) and CBD(N2), arranged in tandem at the N terminus of the 1,4-beta-glucanase, CenC, from Cellulomonas fimi. (wikipedia.org)
  • vicinal
  • Vicinal heteronuclear H-C-O-C coupling constants are used to study torsional angles along glycosidic bond between sugars or along exocyclic fragments, thus revealing a molecular conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • As the preceding examples indicate that the conformation adopted by the oxalate dianion is dependent upon the size of the alkali metal to which it is bound, some have explored the barrier to rotation about the central C−C bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. (gc.ca)
  • energy
  • If the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygens at the anomeric center of 2-methoxypyran are shown, then a brief examination of the conformations of the anomers reveal that the β-anomer always has at least one pair of eclipsing (coplanar 1,3-interacting) lone pairs, this n-n repulsion is a high energy situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • He found a molten globule monomeric intermediate during the folding of peanut agglutinin that retained its carbohydrate binding ability - establishing 'wet' molten globule as an "on pathway" folding intermediate and characterized other early intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) is found in a number of bacterial cellulases. (wikipedia.org)