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  • cellular
  • Following this first step, a second, more specific interaction with the specific cellular receptor of proteinaceous, lipid or carbohydrate nature promotes viral entry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • mannose
  • Once the enzyme has dissociated from the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, it is translocated from the endosome to the lysosome where the phosphate tag is removed from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most endocytosis that uses caveolae to deliver contents of vesicles to lysosomes or other organelles, material endocytosed via potocytosis is released into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organelles of the endomembrane system are related through direct contact or by the transfer of membrane segments as vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea of lipid flow through a continuous system of membranes and vesicles was an alternative to the various membranes being independent entities that are formed from transport of free lipid components, such as fatty acids and sterols, through the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowing precisely where the antibodies attach to the glycoprotein molecules and when and how they act to neutralize ebolaviruses, we can begin to craft broadly effective immunotherapies," says Dr. Dye. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells
  • Lysosomes are cell organelles found in most animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was just one problem: Reflecting Ebola's ingenuity, both targets reside only in lysosomes deep within cells-making them invisible to the immune system and shielded from attack by conventional antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • It is thought that foamy viruses (FVs) enter host cells via endocytosis because all FV glycoproteins examined display pH-dependent fusion activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of glycoproteins on the surface of parasitic cells also is believed to be a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the glycolipids and glycoproteins on an individual's red blood cells can be identified by lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • perinuclear
  • Interestingly, virions harboring fusion-defective glycoproteins still promoted virus attachment and uptake, but failed to show syncytia formation and perinuclear capsid accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The space between the outer and inner membranes is called the perinuclear space and is joined with the lumen of the rough ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • In contrast, endocytosed viruses are challenged to release their capsid into the cytosol before the endosomal content is delivered to lysosomes, where degradation occurs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • outer membrane
  • The outer membrane is also continuous with the inner nuclear membrane since the two layers are fused together at numerous tiny holes called nuclear pores that perforate the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps retain a water layer around the bacterium to prevent dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • Normally they can be found as components of oligosaccharide chains of mucins, glycoproteins and glycolipids occupying terminal, nonreducing positions of complex carbohydrates on both external and internal membrane areas where they are very exposed and develop important functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoconjugates
  • 2001) Eastern blotting was described as a technique for detecting glycoconjugates generated by blotting BSA onto PVDF membranes, followed by periodate treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • So the best therapy would be a monoclonal antibody that is active against the glycoproteins of all five ebolaviruses-and until our study, no such antibody had demonstrated the ability to do that. (yu.edu)
  • uptake
  • These processes involve the uptake of larger membrane areas than clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the prototype FV (PFV) glycoprotein has also significant fusion activity at neutral pH, suggesting that its uptake mechanism may deviate from other FVs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antibodies
  • Once safely inside the lysosomes, the viruses transform and expose key portions of their exterior that the research team successfully targeted using monoclonal antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • The membrane is then probed with antibodies for epitopes of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • gangliosides
  • The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in genes coding for these enzymes leads to the accumulation of partially broken down gangliosides in lysosomes, which results in a group of diseases called gangliosidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • These phospholipids are aligned tail to tail so the nonpolar areas form a hydrophobic region between the hydrophilic heads on the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • Cholesterol is another important component of cell membranes embedded in the hydrophobic areas of the inner (tail-tail) region. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • The outer surface of the membrane will tend to be rich in glycolipids, which have their hydrophobic tails embedded in the hydrophobic region of the membrane and their heads exposed outside the cell. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • intercellular
  • Then, due to not yet characterized stimuli, the amastigotes transform into trypomastigotes, rupturing the host cell membrane, and many trypomastigotes are released into the intercellular space. (fiocruz.br)
  • outer
  • The outer membrane is also continuous with the inner nuclear membrane since the two layers are fused together at numerous tiny holes called nuclear pores that perforate the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The space between the outer and inner membranes is called the perinuclear space and is joined with the lumen of the rough ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • In this study, we demonstrated that cell intoxication by Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin is through the association of cytolethal distending toxin subunits and membrane cholesterol-rich microdomains. (asm.org)
  • The disruption of cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin not only reduced the binding activity of cytolethal distending toxin subunits on the cell membrane but also impaired their delivery and attenuated toxin-induced cell cycle arrest. (asm.org)
  • These findings suggest that membrane cholesterol plays a critical role in the Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin-induced pathogenesis of host cells. (asm.org)
  • Cholesterol aids in the flexibility of a cell membrane. (estrellamountain.edu)
  • Importantly
  • Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved from the latter (see below: Evolution). (wikipedia.org)
  • Describe
  • 2011) A recent study used the term eastern blotting to describe detection of glycoproteins with lectins such as concanavalin A There is clearly no single accepted definition of the term. (wikipedia.org)