• residues
  • 16. All N-linked glycoproteins have the same core of five carbohydrate residues. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The C-type CRDs are each separated by linker regions of 10-20 amino acids containing a number of proline residues, whose cyclic side chain is fairly rigid and favours a conformation in which the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is extended as far away from the plasma membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • mannose
  • Once the enzyme has dissociated from the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, it is translocated from the endosome to the lysosome where the phosphate tag is removed from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • Macropinocytosis, which usually occurs from highly ruffled regions of the plasma membrane, is the invagination of the cell membrane to form a pocket, which then pinches off into the cell to form a vesicle (0.5-5 µm in diameter) filled with a large volume of extracellular fluid and molecules within it (equivalent to ~100 CCVs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either being connected directly, or exchanging material through vesicle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vesicle is a relatively small, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowing precisely where the antibodies attach to the glycoprotein molecules and when and how they act to neutralize ebolaviruses, we can begin to craft broadly effective immunotherapies," says Dr. Dye. (eurekalert.org)
  • Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as well as "anchors" for other molecules in the membranes of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological membranes typically include several types of molecules other than phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • gangliosides
  • The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Lysosomes are cell organelles found in most animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was just one problem: Reflecting Ebola's ingenuity, both targets reside only in lysosomes deep within cells-making them invisible to the immune system and shielded from attack by conventional antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • It is thought that foamy viruses (FVs) enter host cells via endocytosis because all FV glycoproteins examined display pH-dependent fusion activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of glycoproteins on the surface of parasitic cells also is believed to be a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • perinuclear
  • Interestingly, virions harboring fusion-defective glycoproteins still promoted virus attachment and uptake, but failed to show syncytia formation and perinuclear capsid accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The space between the outer and inner membranes is called the perinuclear space and is joined with the lumen of the rough ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • In contrast, endocytosed viruses are challenged to release their capsid into the cytosol before the endosomal content is delivered to lysosomes, where degradation occurs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cellular membrane
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps retain a water layer around the bacterium to prevent dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoconjugates
  • 2001) Eastern blotting was described as a technique for detecting glycoconjugates generated by blotting BSA onto PVDF membranes, followed by periodate treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • So the best therapy would be a monoclonal antibody that is active against the glycoproteins of all five ebolaviruses-and until our study, no such antibody had demonstrated the ability to do that. (yu.edu)
  • uptake
  • These processes involve the uptake of larger membrane areas than clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only the prototype FV (PFV) glycoprotein has also significant fusion activity at neutral pH, suggesting that its uptake mechanism may deviate from other FVs. (biomedcentral.com)