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  • pontine
  • In the cat and rat , carbachol is well known for its ability to induce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when microinjected into the pontine reticular formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • intraocular
  • Carbachol is not easily metabolized by cholinesterase , it has a 2 to 5 minute onset of action and its duration of action is 4 to 8 hours with topical administration and 24 hours for intraocular administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraction
  • These inhibitors had no direct effect on MLCK activity.Thus unlike previously reported for isolated muscle cells where CaMKII and ERK1/2 are notinvolved in contraction, we conclude that the regulation of carbachol-induced contractionin innervated longitudinal muscle strips involves the interplay of Rho kinase, ERK1/2,CaMKK/AMPK, and CAMKII. (nih.gov)
  • Contractile response with maximum forcewas measured as peak contraction (A) and total response for first 2 min, measured asarea under curve (AUC), was considered as total contraction (B). Carbachol elicitedcontraction was selectively blocked by 4-DAMP. (nih.gov)
  • 0.05 significant inhibition of CCh-induced contraction.The inset illustrates an original tracing showing abolition of carbachol-inducedcontraction by 1 µM 4-DAMP but not by 1 µM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or 1 µM methoctramine. (nih.gov)
  • produces
  • Intravenous administration of pilocarpine produces a 90 times faster accommodative response than carbachol iontophoresis with more consistent and stable accommodative changes as indicated by smaller standard deviations from multiple experiments. (arvojournals.org)
  • membrane
  • Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. (hindawi.com)
  • These data confirm, by direct measurements of intracellular ion concentration changes, the contribution of the Na+, K+-pump to the post-carbachol membrane hyperpolarization and [K+]e-undershoot. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • drops
  • Many studies have used carbachol iontophoresis (CARB-ionto) or topical pilocarpine eye drops to pharmacologically stimulate accommodation in Rhesus monkeys. (arvojournals.org)
  • response
  • The percentage changes in R0 following pneumatic trouser inflation highly correlated those induced by inhalation of 125 micrograms carbachol (r = 0.98) Our data demonstrate that, even in normal subjects, pneumatic trouser inflation causes an increase in respiratory resistance, which can be predicted by the response to a low dose of carbachol. (ersjournals.com)
  • At a low dose, the vasodilating action of carbachol could be the major factor involved in the respiratory response. (ersjournals.com)