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  • genomic
  • The capsid encapsulates the two genomic RNAs. (uniprot.org)
  • Based on the Baltimore classification system, Entebbe Bat Virus is a (+)ssRNA genomic virus that doesn't need a DNA intermediate to create viral proteins (Flint). (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic MCP1 protein forms a core around which the genomic dsDNA is wrapped, whereas MCP2 interacts with the genome with its basic N-terminal region and the hydrophilic C-terminal domain is embedded into the lipid envelope Genomes are linear, up to 40 kb in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • Though raised against DEN2 protein, this antibody is predicted to cross-react with the other serotypes based on comparative sequence analysis. (genetex.com)
  • The C-terminus also contains a basic nuclear localization sequence, while the N-terminus - which is oriented toward the center of the assembled capsid - contains basic residues that facilitate non-sequence-specific interactions with DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • the proteins contain a leucine zipper sequence of amino acids which allow them to adhere to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this genetic encoding is three proteins that share a common N-terminal sequence, forming a protein domain called the J domain which has sequence homology to DnaJ molecular chaperone proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SV40
  • for example, in JC virus both VP2 and VP3 seem to be essential for packaging the viral chromosome into the capsid, while absence of these proteins in SV40 prevents successful entry into new host cells, with variable effects on packaging reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • The organisation of the three major capsid proteins leads to surface depressions, or pits, thought to be involved in receptor binding, while the variable outer rim is involved in antibody recognition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This protein is responsible for binding the capsid (outer coat) of the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus to the virus's RNA (ribonucleic acid), which holds its genetic code. (sciencephoto.com)
  • replication
  • The viral protein gp2 plays an essential role in viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP0, which is further cleaved into VP2 and VP4, VP1 and VP3, proteins of the viral capsid After translation, transcription and genome replication which involve a single process (synthesis of (+) RNA) is realized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primer for both (+) and (−) strand synthesis is the small protein VPg, which is uridylylated at the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine residue by the poliovirus RNA polymerase at a cis-acting replication element located in a stem-loop in the virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTag plays a role in viral DNA replication and in the transition from early to late gene expression, and its absence can cause defects in viral capsid assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • trimers
  • In flavivirus virions, the fusion peptide is buried in dimmers of the fusion glycoprotein E. At low pH, the dimmers are disrupted, the proteins rotate to form trimers, and the fusion peptide is directed toward the cell membrane The viral envelope protein E attaches to host receptors, which mediates receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The viral coat is made up of a single protein repeated 60 times (ribbon), creating a sphere that holds only the viral genetic information (shown as spheres and cylinders) and a single protein related to maturation (not shown). (asknature.org)
  • Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no direct interaction has been shown between capsid and restriction factor using a variety of biochemical approaches. (bl.uk)
  • Genetic mutations in this region prevent viral protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid encloses the genetic material of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsomeres
  • The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number and arrangement of capsomeres in an icosahedral capsid can be classified using the "quasi-equivalence principle" proposed by Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interacts
  • Once phosphorylated, MTag interacts with and activates downstream signaling pathways through Shc, 14-3-3 proteins, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and phospholipase Cγ1. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The minor components are VP2 and VP3, which bind in the interior of the capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UL-15/UL-28 is believed to bind with viral DNA and serve the same purpose as terminase by packing viral DNA into the capsid during capsid assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the cell that it's going to infect. (wikipedia.org)
  • L1 capsid proteins can bind via its nuclear localisation signal (NLS) to karyopherins Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) and inhibit the Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) nuclear import pathways during the productive phase of the viral life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each coat protein on the interior of the helix bind three nucleotides of the RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, MTag binds and activates Src-family protein tyrosine kinases in a PP2A-dependent manner, and in turn is phosphorylated by Src on tyrosine residues in the MTag C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • pentamer
  • VP2 and VP3 assemble inside the capsid in contact with VP1, with a stoichiometry of one VP2 or VP3 molecule to each pentamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refinements to the electron microscopy in 2007 allowed finding that the portal is a twelve (12)-unit polymer present at one of the twelve capsid vertices instead of the UL-19 pentamer found at non-portal vertices. (wikipedia.org)
  • each pentamer of VP1 is associated with one molecule of one of the other two capsid proteins, VP2 or VP3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome
  • All three capsid proteins are expressed from alternative start sites on a single transcript of the "late region" of the circular viral chromosome (so named because it is transcribed late in the process of viral infection). (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In order to better understand the context of the capsid/restriction factor interaction, cell biology studies using live-cell microscopy were initiated. (bl.uk)
  • Like STag, MTag has no enzymatic activity of its own, but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, MTag preferentially performs other protein-protein interactions that compete with the Hsc70 interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • The polymers, which are synthesised like natural proteins in yeast cells (Pichia pastoris), consist entirely of natural amino acids and can ultimately be fully degraded in the human body. (wur.nl)
  • The full-length MTag protein is around 420 amino acids long. (wikipedia.org)
  • phage
  • In this technique, a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on its outside while containing the gene for the protein on its inside, resulting in a connection between genotype and phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein that binds to one of those targets on its surface will remain while others are removed by washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage eluted in the final step can be used to infect a suitable bacterial host, from which the phagemids can be collected and the relevant DNA sequence excised and sequenced to identify the relevant, interacting proteins or protein fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage display is also a widely used method for in vitro protein evolution (also called protein engineering). (wikipedia.org)
  • The T4 phage initiates an Escherichia coli infection by binding OmpC porin proteins and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the surface of E. coli cells with its long tail fibers (LTF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The T4 DNA packaging motor has been found to load DNA into phage capsids at a rate up to 2000 base pairs per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • The molecular architecture of the pore, its degree of selectivity, the extent to which it incorporates lipids from the surrounding membrane, and the presence of portions of the protein that extend beyond the membrane all vary among viroporins and indicate that these proteins have a diverse array of functional roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternative mechanism is illustrated by the SARS-CoV E protein, which forms a pore that integrates membrane lipids whose polar head groups influence ion selectivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • In conclusion, our vector offers the possibility of easily producing proteins of medical interest such as antibodies in high yields. (inrs.ca)
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • These displaying phages can then be screened against other proteins, peptides or DNA sequences, in order to detect interaction between the displayed protein and those other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Effects of Tat proteins and Tat mutants of different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clades on glial JC virus early and late gene transcription. (abcam.cn)
  • The virus is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral encoded protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is significant variation in the consequences of viroporin depletion: while hepatitis C virus is incapable of propagation without its p7 protein viroporin, influenza A virus and HIV-1 see decreases in in vitro viral titer of 10- to 100-fold in the absence of their respective viroporins, but remain capable of propagation. (wikipedia.org)
  • examples include the influenza A virus M2 proton channel protein, which is highly selective for protons and is active at low pH, and the Chlorella virus Kcv protein, which is selective for potassium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of a virus-like particle composed only of VP2 protein was determined by cryo electron microscopy and image reconstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus capsid is not enveloped. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The viral genome is around 2500 nm in length so we can therefore conclude that it must be tightly packaged within the capsid along with substances such as sodium ions in order to cancel out the negative charges on the RNA caused by the phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Phosphorylation of a surface protein on endosomes is key to the organelles' uneven distribution in daughter cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Phosphorylation of a protein called Sara found on the surface of endosomes appears to be a key regulator of asymmetric splitting in fruit flies. (the-scientist.com)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interior surface of the capsid is composed of VP4 and the N termini of VP1. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Researchers uncover the central role of a protein linked to Fragile X Syndrome in mice, one of the leading causes of autism and intellectual disability. (the-scientist.com)
  • different
  • VP2 and VP4 polypeptides originate from one protomer known as VP0 that is cleaved to give the different capsid components. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Abundant expression of HIV Nef and Rev proteins in brain astrocytes in vivo is associated with dementia. (abcam.cn)
  • Expression kinetics and subcellular localization of HIV-1 regulatory proteins Nef, Tat and Rev in acutely and chronically infected lymphoid cell lines. (abcam.cn)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vector
  • The use of viral vector has attracted interest because they can rapidly produce high yields of proteins. (inrs.ca)
  • Important features of TuMV as a vector are: 1) the protein of interest is part of the polyprotein and is synthesised at the same level as the capsid protein. (inrs.ca)
  • known
  • Glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase 1 also known as myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT-1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each protomer consists of 4 polypeptides known as VP (viral protein) 1, 2, 3 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • His work made possible the dynamic simulation of the activities of thousands of proteins working together at the macromolecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • A second major area of study concerns depolarization depemndent reversible phodsphorylation of various protein factors of the vesicular neurosecretory apparatus and the possible dysfunction in this system in epilepsy. (uky.edu)
  • 2) It is possible to produce more than one protein of interest with the same construct. (inrs.ca)
  • Schulten and others have since extended this early work, developing a model of the possible excitation of cryptochrome proteins in photoreceptors within the retina of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • All bocaparvoviruses encode a novel protein called NP1 that is not present in parvoviruses from other genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tape measure protein gp29 is present in the baseplate-tail tube complexes, but it could not be modeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass. (the-scientist.com)
  • assembly
  • An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation. (embl.de)
  • high
  • They describe how HSV-1 enters cells, docks with portals on the nucleus and injects DNA with high pressure caused by tight packing of the capsid, the tough shell that houses the viral genome. (nanowerk.com)