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  • cucumber
  • For example, the Y-satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus causes systemic chlorosis in tobacco. (virology.ws)
  • The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) RNA were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • Department of V^n.f Sd-Cnc-c The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) P'&- Abstract The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) R N A were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • gene
  • This syndrome is caused by production of a small RNA from the Y-satellite RNA that has homology to a gene needed for chlorophyll biosynthesis. (virology.ws)
  • structural
  • Moreover, it suggests that entirely new virus types may emerge via the lateral exchange of functional and structural modules from viruses of vastly different types, utilizing as yet unknown mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, structural relationship between viruses has been suggested to be used as a basis for defining higher-level taxa - structure-based viral lineages - that could complement the existing ICTV classification scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • double-stranded
  • viruses possess double-stranded DNA and include such virus families as Herpesviridae (examples like HSV1 ( oral herpes ), HSV2 ( genital herpes ), VZV ( chickenpox ), EBV ( Epstein-Barr virus ), CMV ( Cytomegalovirus )), Poxviridae (smallpox) and many tailed bacteriophages . (wikidoc.org)
  • viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. rotavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • They are found exclusively in double-stranded DNA viruses of at least nine different viral families, including viruses that infect all domains of life, and spanning a large capsid size range. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hepatitis B vir
  • Infection with hepatitis delta satellite virus only occurs in individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: it is globally distributed, present in about 5% of the 350 million carriers of hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • Acute co-infections of the two viruses can be more severe than infection with hepatitis B virus alone, leading to more cases of liver failure. (virology.ws)
  • particles
  • This is mainly due to the pseudo-living nature of viruses, which is to say they are non-living particles with some chemical characteristics similar to those of life, or non-cellular life. (wikipedia.org)
  • VSV particles are rod-shaped (hence the name rhabdo, from the Greek for rod) enveloped viruses of approximate dimensions 70 X 180 nm (Fig. 1). (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • ancestor
  • This shared capsid architecture is thought to reflect ancient evolutionary relationships, possibly dating to before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of cellular life. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Perhaps the greatest impediment to the evolutionary study of viruses is that there is no single phylogenetic marker in common amongst all viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanism responsible for the integration of the RNA virus cistron into the DNA virus, and the point in evolutionary time at which it occurred, are unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examples
  • Examples of disease include necrosis and systemic chlorosis, or reduced chlorophyll production leading to leaves that are pale, yellow, or yellow-white. (virology.ws)
  • enzymes
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • morphology
  • Other classifications are determined by the disease caused by the virus or its morphology, neither of which are satisfactory due to different viruses either causing the same disease or looking very similar. (wikidoc.org)
  • plant
  • Mononegavirales include nonsegmented (-) strand ssRNA (Group V) plant and animal viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also describe other translation strategies used by plant viruses to optimize the usage of the coding capacity of their very compact genomes, including leaky scanning initiation, ribosomal frameshifting and stop-codon readthrough. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2013 ), and in fact the host range of a given virus may be determined by its ability to efficiently translate viral mRNAs using host translation factors, as we have shown recently for a plant virus (Truniger et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • disease
  • Viral classification starts at the level of order and continues as follows, with the taxon suffixes given in italics: Order (-virales) Family (-viridae) Subfamily (-virinae) Genus (-virus) Species Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus, particularly for higher plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • All major seed companies are incorporating disease resistance into most released varieties with emphasis placed on bacterial leaf spot, Phytophthora blight, and assorted virus diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • constitutes
  • It seems likely that a redefinition of what constitutes a satellite virus will be required to solve this disagreement. (virology.ws)
  • The ICTV had adopted the principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • classification
  • Currently, two main schemes are used for the classification of viruses: the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system and Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of two main schemes is currently in widespread use for the classification of viruses. (wikidoc.org)
  • David Baltimore , a Nobel Prize -winning biologist, devised the Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikidoc.org)
  • Accompanying this broad method of classification are specific naming conventions and further classification guidelines set out by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses . (wikidoc.org)
  • symptoms
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • surface
  • The architecture of the assembled capsid orients the axis of the jelly roll parallel or "horizontally" relative to the capsid surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the double jelly roll capsid architecture, the jelly roll axis is oriented perpendicular or "vertically" relative to the capsid surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • rabbit
  • During the 1930s attenuated rinderpest vaccines were developed by passage of the virus in nonnatural hosts, e.g. rabbit and embryonated eggs (lapinized avian-ized) or goats (caprinized). (centrallakesclinic.biz)
  • diseases
  • Insects that attack pepper serve to create wounds favorable for bacterial soft rot and spread several virus diseases. (blogspot.com)