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  • gene
  • This syndrome is caused by production of a small RNA from the Y-satellite RNA that has homology to a gene needed for chlorophyll biosynthesis. (virology.ws)
  • We report the discovery of a group of circovirus-like DNA genomes whose common ancestor appears to have incorporated a capsid protein (CP) gene known previously only in RNA viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A method is provided for introducing a foreign gene into a plant cell by means of an Olpidium zoospore vector having associated with it a reassembled nucleoprotein complex comprising the foreign gene and reassociated coat protein of a zoospore-transmissable virus. (google.com)
  • cucumber
  • For example, the Y-satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus causes systemic chlorosis in tobacco. (virology.ws)
  • The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) RNA were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • Department of V^n.f Sd-Cnc-c The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) P'&- Abstract The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) R N A were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • mimivirus
  • The giant DNA viruses including Acanthamoeba polyophaga mimivirus, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, and others are associated with much smaller viruses (sputnik and mavirus, respectively) that depend upon the larger viruses for reproduction. (virology.ws)
  • For example, sputnik virus can only replicate in cells infected with mimivirus, and does so within viral factories. (virology.ws)
  • homologous
  • Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • likely evolved
  • The establishment of an order is based on the inference that the virus families it contains have most likely evolved from a common ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • This is mainly due to the pseudo-living nature of viruses, which is to say they are non-living particles with some chemical characteristics similar to those of life, or non-cellular life. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-stranded
  • viruses possess double-stranded DNA and include such virus families as Herpesviridae (examples like HSV1 ( oral herpes ), HSV2 ( genital herpes ), VZV ( chickenpox ), EBV ( Epstein-Barr virus ), CMV ( Cytomegalovirus )), Poxviridae (smallpox) and many tailed bacteriophages . (wikidoc.org)
  • viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. rotavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • They are found exclusively in double-stranded DNA viruses of at least nine different viral families, including viruses that infect all domains of life, and spanning a large capsid size range. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms, virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the relatively consistent classification systems seen for cellular organisms , virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. (wikidoc.org)
  • hepatitis B vir
  • Infection with hepatitis delta satellite virus only occurs in individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: it is globally distributed, present in about 5% of the 350 million carriers of hepatitis B virus. (virology.ws)
  • Acute co-infections of the two viruses can be more severe than infection with hepatitis B virus alone, leading to more cases of liver failure. (virology.ws)
  • classification
  • Currently, two main schemes are used for the classification of viruses: the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system and Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral classification starts at the level of order and continues as follows, with the taxon suffixes given in italics: Order (-virales) Family (-viridae) Subfamily (-virinae) Genus (-virus) Species Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus, particularly for higher plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of two main schemes is currently in widespread use for the classification of viruses. (wikidoc.org)
  • David Baltimore , a Nobel Prize -winning biologist, devised the Baltimore classification system, which places viruses into one of seven groups. (wikidoc.org)
  • Accompanying this broad method of classification are specific naming conventions and further classification guidelines set out by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses . (wikidoc.org)
  • ancestor
  • This shared capsid architecture is thought to reflect ancient evolutionary relationships, possibly dating to before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of cellular life. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • evolutionary
  • With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Perhaps the greatest impediment to the evolutionary study of viruses is that there is no single phylogenetic marker in common amongst all viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanism responsible for the integration of the RNA virus cistron into the DNA virus, and the point in evolutionary time at which it occurred, are unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examples
  • Examples of disease include necrosis and systemic chlorosis, or reduced chlorophyll production leading to leaves that are pale, yellow, or yellow-white. (virology.ws)
  • disease
  • All major seed companies are incorporating disease resistance into most released varieties with emphasis placed on bacterial leaf spot, Phytophthora blight, and assorted virus diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • Other classifications are determined by the disease caused by the virus or its morphology, neither of which are satisfactory due to different viruses either causing the same disease or looking very similar. (wikidoc.org)
  • Our understanding of viruses and disease has expanded greatly within the lifetime of modern bee researchers. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • diseases
  • Insects that attack pepper serve to create wounds favorable for bacterial soft rot and spread several virus diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • plants
  • and (ii) the evolution of geminivirus capsid protein in land plants implies missing links, while the analysis of metagenomic data suggests an alternative scenario implying a more ancient evolution in marine environments. (beds.ac.uk)
  • cellular
  • Those who favor the name virophage argue that dependence upon the cellular transcriptional machinery is a property of many autonomous viruses - the only difference is that Sputnik depends upon the machinery provided by another virus. (virology.ws)
  • It wasn't until 1952 that viruses were first grown in cell culture, finally enabling scientists to isolate strains and observe the cellular effects of infection. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • symptoms
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • species
  • The ICTV had adopted the principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2013, the ICTV definition of species changed to state: "A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • These immune suppressors may be specific for that virus species, or they may be more generic. (scientificbeekeeping.com)
  • case
  • they achieve this by relying on both the host cell and a host virus (in this case, TMV) for the machinery necessary for them to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • One might assume that the combined effect would invariably lead to virus synergy, but that doesn't appear to always be the case. (scientificbeekeeping.com)