• tumor
  • The presence of a humoral response against a number of intracellular and surface tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has been clearly established in cancer patients ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor grade is an established indicator of breast cancer outcome, although considerable heterogeneity exists even within-grade. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The tumor-associated shift in immunoglobulin G1/G2 is expressed at the messenger RNA level of peripheral blood B lymphocytes in patients with gynecologic malignancies," Cancer , vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 461-467, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • T. A. Caragine, N. Okada, A. B. Frey, and S. Tomlinson, "A tumor-expressed inhibitor of the early but not late complement lytic pathway enhances tumor growth in a rat model of human breast cancer," Cancer Research , vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 1110-1115, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Coexisting ductal carcinoma in situ independently predicts lower tumor aggressiveness in node-positive luminal breast cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In the present study based on the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, tumor growth was estimated from a large population using a new estimating procedure/model. (springer.com)
  • The method was applied to cancer incidence and tumor measurement data from 395,188 women aged 50 to 69 years. (springer.com)
  • There is a large variation in breast cancer tumor growth, with faster growth among younger women. (springer.com)
  • For these decisions, adequate estimates of breast cancer tumor growth and screening test sensitivity (STS) are crucial. (springer.com)
  • Tumor growth can also be indirectly observed as tumor progression, estimated from variations in cancer incidence in screening trials or programs. (springer.com)
  • These studies [ 1 ] are usually analyzed using Markov models [ 5 , 6 ], where the mean time for a breast cancer tumor to growth from screening-detectable size to clinical detection without screening - the so-called mean sojourn time - and the STS are estimated. (springer.com)
  • The estimated parameters therefore have no explicit relation to the biological process of tumor growth, and are often difficult to compare between different countries, as the STS is defined as 'the proportion of cancers detected at screening among screening detectable cancers', using the evaluated procedural as its own reference. (springer.com)
  • The other 20 cancers showed heterogeneous immunoreactivity in tumor tissue, which was defined as focal type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • RRM2 is upregulated within these specific Triple Negative cancer cells leading to a higher rate of drug resistance and inability to slow or stop the tumor progression which leads to more aggressive forms of triple negative breast cancer that are often fatal (Wilson 2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification of breast cancer is usually, but not always, primarily based on the histological appearance of tissue in the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cancer characteristics are described as the size of the tumor (T), whether or not the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (N) in the armpits, neck, and inside the chest, and whether the tumor has metastasized (M) (i.e. spread to a more distant part of the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, it was shown that tumor progression selects for cells that are VEGF-dependent, challenging the belief that VEGF's role in cancer is limited to angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • By staining the cells from a biopsy, a pathologist can determine whether the tumor is an adenocarcinoma or some other type of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether there exists a correlation between the loss of KAI1 protein expression with advancing breast cancer disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Though little research has been conducted on IBC internationally, a few studies have reported a higher frequency and a more aggressive form of the disease in Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Perineural and/or lymphovascular space invasion is usually considered as part of the histological description of a breast cancer, and when present may be associated with more aggressive disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, randomized controlled trials were designed and funded that addressed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among postmenopausal women, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as impaired quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among women in all age groups, cancer and cardiovascular disease are the leading causes of mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, however, interest in the impact of diet on cancer and cardiovascular disease in women was renewed, and a joint National Cancer Institute (NCI)-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) workshop concluded that a full-scale dietary trial, with a focus on these two diseases, was warranted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, breast cancer awareness campaigns have been highly effective in getting attention for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • In this edition, we fill you in on the latest research about Arimidex (chemical name: anastrazole) for reducing the risk of a primary breast cancer, sticking to your aromatase inhibitor regimen, strength training and aerobics for the relief of aromatase inhibitor-induced joint pain relief, and survival improvements with bisphosphonates after early breast cancer. (breastcancer.org)
  • Pooled data of all triple-negative subtypes suggest that with optimal treatment 20-year survival rates are very close to those of hormone positive cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This relapse pattern has been recognized for all types of triple-negative cancers for which sufficient data exists although the absolute relapse and survival rates differ across subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNBCs have been classified using an integrative analysis of cancer genomics data (DNA copy number, DNA methylation, and mRNA) and PPI data from a prognostic point of view and several key subnetworks (i.e. ubiquitin/proteasome, complement system, metabolism-related Warburg effect, ER-Golgi-cell surface trafficking, transcription) significantly related to patient survival have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence shows that autocrine VEGF is involved in two major aspects of invasive carcinoma: survival and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, this research suggests that VEGF receptor-targeted therapeutics may impair cancer survival and invasion as well as angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supporters hope that greater knowledge will lead to earlier detection of breast cancer, which is associated with higher long-term survival rates, and that money raised for breast cancer will produce a reliable, permanent cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammography
  • The organization that runs the official NBCAM aims to promote mammography and other forms of early detection as the most effective means of fighting breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • precancerous
  • The company is named after the Persian Queen Atossa, who became the first woman in recorded history with breast cancer around 470 B.C. In 2000, Dr. Steven Quay, a physician specializing in biological chemistry, invented a preventative screening method to identify precursors to breast cancer and to treat precancerous lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1
  • An important gene associated with Breast-Ovarian Cancer, Familial 1 is BRCA1 (BRCA1, DNA Repair Associated), and among its related pathways/superpathways are DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and TCR Signaling (Qiagen) . (malacards.org)
  • mutations
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various patterns of prevalence of genetic mutations in the genomes of primary breast tumour and its metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • One known cause of triple negative breast cancer is germline mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various types of human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of genes encoding cancer-associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • classification
  • Many proteins such as Caveolin 1/2, Survivin are researched as possible classification or prognostic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment algorithms rely on breast cancer classification to define specific subgroups that are each treated according to the best evidence available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description of a breast cancer would optimally include all of these classification aspects, as well as other findings, such as signs found on physical exam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TNM classification for staging breast cancer is based on the size of the cancer where it originally started in the body and the locations to which it has travelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer cells may or may not have many different types of receptors, the three most important in the present classification being: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • This study aims to investigate the Mortalin expression in breast cancer and its correlation with the outcome of the patients with breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of fibrinogen E-fragment and fibrin E-fragment is inhibited in the human infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast: the two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry analyses," International Journal of Oncology , vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1425-1431, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggest that in advanced breast cancer, KAI1 expression is down-regulated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CXCR4 was diffusely and homogeneously expressed in 59 cancers, which were further divided into 28 high-expression and 31 low-expression cancers by their staining intensity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amplification or over-expression of this oncogene has been shown to play an important role in the development and progression of certain aggressive types of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification, also known as the over-expression of the ERBB2 gene, occurs in approximately 15-30% of breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research revealed that IL-6 secretion induced by HER2 overexpression activated STAT3 and altered gene expression, resulting in an autocrine loop of IL-6/STAT3 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, MTA3 expression is downregulated in breast cancer and endometrioid adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estrogen receptor-stimulates the expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Although protein microarrays have been successfully used for the identification of autoantibodies in the serum of cancer patients, especially in early-stage cancer detection, the use of protein microarrays to identify autoantibodies correlated with invasion has not been reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The localization of Mortalin protein was detected in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells using immunofluorescence (IF) staining. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KAI1 protein levels paralleled KAI1 mRNA levels and were inversely correlated with the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To test this, we examined KAI1 protein levels by Western blot in four breast cancer cell lines representing different stages of progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In recent years the protein has become an important biomarker and target of therapy for approximately 30% of breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Normal cells in an organ like the breast become differentiated, meaning that they take on specific shapes and forms that reflect their function as part of that organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low-grade), moderately differentiated (intermediate-grade), and poorly differentiated (high-grade) as the cells progressively lose the features seen in normal breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, NeuVax (Galena Biopharma) is a peptide-based immunotherapy that directs "killer" T cells to target and destroy cancer cells that express HER2. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGF, produced by carcinoma cells, acts through paracrine signaling on endothelial cells and through autocrine signaling on carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 Dr. J. Peter Rubin from the University of Pittsburgh developed a basic science research program in the biology of adipose derived stem cells and serves as co-director of the Adipose Stem Cell Center at the University of Pittsburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently he has determined the safety on fat derived stem cells for breast reconstruction after mastectomy as long as there is no evidence of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the year 2002 the UCLA under direction of Dr. Marc H. Hedrick M.D. started research on possible applications of Adult stem cells generating positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opting for research on Adult stem cells rather than Embryonic stem cells resulted amidst the stem cell controversy that involve diverse ethical concerns and religious groups, most prominently the Catholic Church. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help clarify the matter, in 2006 the Pope of the Catholic Church openly stated the encouragement on research on Adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Kotaro Yoshimura was one of the first to implement an alternative to breast augmentation by safely grafting fat stem cells in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • In breast cancer, loss of MTA3 promotes EMT and invasiveness of breast cancer cells via upregulating Snail, which in turn represses E-cadherin adhesion molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mammary epithelium and breast cancer cells, MTA3 is an estrogen regulated gene and part of a larger regulatory network involving MTA1 and MTAs, all modifiers of hormone response, and participate in the processes involved in growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)