• clinical
  • We have investigated whether this group of breast cancers has a distinguishing pattern of genetic alterations and which of these may relate to the different clinical outcome of these patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis on 43 grade III invasive ductal breast carcinomas positive for basal cytokeratin 14, as well as 43 grade- and age-matched CK14-negative controls, all with up to 25 years (median, 7 years) of clinical follow-up. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a disparate variety of histological types and a wide spectrum of responsiveness to different treatments, making clinical management difficult. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The correlations between overexpression of Mortalin and the clinical features of patients with breast cancer were evaluated using chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overexpression of Mortalin was closely correlated with histological grade, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, lower disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of patients with breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, multivariate analysis suggested that Mortalin emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor along with clinical stage and Her2 expression status in patients with breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overexpression of Mortalin in breast cancer was associated with histological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, no large-scale population-based clinical observational studies of untreated cancers have therefore been performed as cancers are usually treated in populations with good cancer surveillance. (springer.com)
  • These studies [ 1 ] are usually analyzed using Markov models [ 5 , 6 ], where the mean time for a breast cancer tumor to growth from screening-detectable size to clinical detection without screening - the so-called mean sojourn time - and the STS are estimated. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, we examined KAI1 protein expression immunohistochemically in specimens from 81 patients with breast cancer and then correlated the findings with the clinical and histopathological parameters of the patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, we performed immunohistochemical studies to assess KAI1 protein expression in 81 human breast cancer specimens from patients with known clinical outcome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and reproductive factors of breast cancer and to determine the proportion of IBC in Tanzania. (aacrjournals.org)
  • All these clinical observations, coupled with the notion that surgery modifies the growth kinetics of breast cancer micrometastasis ( 8 , 9 ), support the hypothesis that surgery itself represents a perturbing factor for metastasis development in humans, as shown in animal models ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The preponderance of local recurrence along the scar produced by the surgical excision has stimulated clinical trials to test if localized radiotherapy, using intraoperative ( 17 , 18 ), interstitial, or three-dimensional conformal techniques ( 19 , 20 ), would be preferable to conventional whole-breast radiotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • All mammograms performed between 2003 and 2012 at TBAH were analysed regarding patient demographics, clinical data, indication and outcome according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). (journals.co.za)
  • Within the context of massive international sequencing efforts, and in anticipation of the new era of precision medicine, The International Cancer Genome Consortium for Medicine (ICGCmed) will link the wealth of genomic data already amassed, as well as new genomic data being generated, to clinical and health information, including lifestyle, patient history, cancer diagnostic data, and response to and survival following to therapies, across the cancer spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, beginning in 1991, NIH strengthened the policy to require, rather than recommend, the inclusion of women in clinical research (when appropriate) in order to obtain funding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • All 8 of the recurrence were invasive ductal carcinoma with a median disease free survival time of 55 months. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pooled data of all triple-negative subtypes suggest that with optimal treatment 20-year survival rates are very close to those of hormone positive cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This relapse pattern has been recognized for all types of triple-negative cancers for which sufficient data exists although the absolute relapse and survival rates differ across subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNBCs have been classified using an integrative analysis of cancer genomics data (DNA copy number, DNA methylation, and mRNA) and PPI data from a prognostic point of view and several key subnetworks (i.e. ubiquitin/proteasome, complement system, metabolism-related Warburg effect, ER-Golgi-cell surface trafficking, transcription) significantly related to patient survival have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence shows that autocrine VEGF is involved in two major aspects of invasive carcinoma: survival and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, this research suggests that VEGF receptor-targeted therapeutics may impair cancer survival and invasion as well as angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supporters hope that greater knowledge will lead to earlier detection of breast cancer, which is associated with higher long-term survival rates, and that money raised for breast cancer will produce a reliable, permanent cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammography
  • The organization that runs the official NBCAM aims to promote mammography and other forms of early detection as the most effective means of fighting breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her2
  • The oral antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with lower breast cancer risk in epidemiological studies and has shown antitumor activity in HER2-positive preclinical models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Breast cancer cells may or may not have many different types of receptors, the three most important in the present classification being: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (sometimes abbreviated TNBC) refers to any breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) or Her2/neu. (wikipedia.org)
  • HER2 is co-localised, and, most of the time, co-amplified with the gene GRB7, which is a proto-oncogene associated with breast, testicular germ cell, gastric, and eosophageal tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent evidence has implicated HER2 signaling in resistance to the EGFR-targeted cancer drug cetuximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • HER2 mutations have been found in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and can direct treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trastuzumab is effective only in cancers where HER2 is over-expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • One year of trastuzumab therapy is recommended for all patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who are also receiving chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, NeuVax (Galena Biopharma) is a peptide-based immunotherapy that directs "killer" T cells to target and destroy cancer cells that express HER2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research revealed that IL-6 secretion induced by HER2 overexpression activated STAT3 and altered gene expression, resulting in an autocrine loop of IL-6/STAT3 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both mouse and human in vivo models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers relied critically on this HER2-IL-6-STAT3 signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • colorectal cancer
  • In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of genes encoding cancer-associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, genetic mutation of the APC gene is also strongly linked to cancers, and in particular colorectal cancer resulting from familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether there exists a correlation between the loss of KAI1 protein expression with advancing breast cancer disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Though little research has been conducted on IBC internationally, a few studies have reported a higher frequency and a more aggressive form of the disease in Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Perineural and/or lymphovascular space invasion is usually considered as part of the histological description of a breast cancer, and when present may be associated with more aggressive disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, randomized controlled trials were designed and funded that addressed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among postmenopausal women, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, as well as impaired quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among women in all age groups, cancer and cardiovascular disease are the leading causes of mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, however, interest in the impact of diet on cancer and cardiovascular disease in women was renewed, and a joint National Cancer Institute (NCI)-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) workshop concluded that a full-scale dietary trial, with a focus on these two diseases, was warranted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, breast cancer awareness campaigns have been highly effective in getting attention for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various patterns of prevalence of genetic mutations in the genomes of primary breast tumour and its metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • One known cause of triple negative breast cancer is germline mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • De-regulation of the autocrine Wnt signaling pathway via mutations in APC and Axin have been linked to activation of various types of human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • proportion
  • The estimated parameters therefore have no explicit relation to the biological process of tumor growth, and are often difficult to compare between different countries, as the STS is defined as 'the proportion of cancers detected at screening among screening detectable cancers', using the evaluated procedural as its own reference. (springer.com)
  • classification
  • Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment algorithms rely on breast cancer classification to define specific subgroups that are each treated according to the best evidence available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description of a breast cancer would optimally include all of these classification aspects, as well as other findings, such as signs found on physical exam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TNM classification for staging breast cancer is based on the size of the cancer where it originally started in the body and the locations to which it has travelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins such as Caveolin 1/2, Survivin are researched as possible classification or prognostic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • This study aims to investigate the Mortalin expression in breast cancer and its correlation with the outcome of the patients with breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of fibrinogen E-fragment and fibrin E-fragment is inhibited in the human infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast: the two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry analyses," International Journal of Oncology , vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1425-1431, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we examined KAI1 protein expression in breast cancer cell lines by Western blot and immunohistochemical study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that in advanced breast cancer, KAI1 expression is down-regulated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of KAI1 in a highly malignant prostate cancer cell line resulted in a significant suppression of lung metastases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amplification, also known as the over-expression of the ERBB2 gene, occurs in approximately 15-30% of breast cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, MTA3 expression is downregulated in breast cancer and endometrioid adenocarcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estrogen receptor-stimulates the expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The localization of Mortalin protein was detected in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells using immunofluorescence (IF) staining. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mortalin protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic staining pattern in breast cancers by using IHC staining in paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues and IF staining in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KAI1 protein levels paralleled KAI1 mRNA levels and were inversely correlated with the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The proteomic profile of the WF and their effects on the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways of breast cancer cells were also analyzed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we have studied the response of breast cancer cells to CD47 ligands TSP-1, the CD47 agonist peptide 4N1K derived from TSP-1, and the anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody 1F7. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H89 and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor peptide prevented rescue of breast cancer cells by PTX, 8-Br-cAMP, and forskolin, suggesting that the effects of cAMP are mediated via PKA-dependent phosphorylation events. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, CD47-mediated killing of breast cancer cells occurs by a novel pathway involving regulation of cAMP levels by heterotrimeric Gi with subsequent effects mediated by PKA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Normal cells in an organ like the breast become differentiated, meaning that they take on specific shapes and forms that reflect their function as part of that organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathologists describe cells as well differentiated (low-grade), moderately differentiated (intermediate-grade), and poorly differentiated (high-grade) as the cells progressively lose the features seen in normal breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGF, produced by carcinoma cells, acts through paracrine signaling on endothelial cells and through autocrine signaling on carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 Dr. J. Peter Rubin from the University of Pittsburgh developed a basic science research program in the biology of adipose derived stem cells and serves as co-director of the Adipose Stem Cell Center at the University of Pittsburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently he has determined the safety on fat derived stem cells for breast reconstruction after mastectomy as long as there is no evidence of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the year 2002 the UCLA under direction of Dr. Marc H. Hedrick M.D. started research on possible applications of Adult stem cells generating positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opting for research on Adult stem cells rather than Embryonic stem cells resulted amidst the stem cell controversy that involve diverse ethical concerns and religious groups, most prominently the Catholic Church. (wikipedia.org)
  • To help clarify the matter, in 2006 the Pope of the Catholic Church openly stated the encouragement on research on Adult stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Kotaro Yoshimura was one of the first to implement an alternative to breast augmentation by safely grafting fat stem cells in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • MTA3 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer and human placenta and chorionic carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In breast cancer, loss of MTA3 promotes EMT and invasiveness of breast cancer cells via upregulating Snail, which in turn represses E-cadherin adhesion molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mammary epithelium and breast cancer cells, MTA3 is an estrogen regulated gene and part of a larger regulatory network involving MTA1 and MTAs, all modifiers of hormone response, and participate in the processes involved in growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNA-495 inhibits the level of MTA3 mRNA as well as the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mastectomy
  • Despite the presence of multiple foci of cancer in about two thirds of mastectomy specimens ( 4 - 6 ), recurrences localize most frequently within the area surrounding the original tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • patients
  • Although protein microarrays have been successfully used for the identification of autoantibodies in the serum of cancer patients, especially in early-stage cancer detection, the use of protein microarrays to identify autoantibodies correlated with invasion has not been reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of a humoral response against a number of intracellular and surface tumor-associated antigens (TAA) has been clearly established in cancer patients ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mortalin is upregulated in breast cancer, and may be a useful poor prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tumor-associated shift in immunoglobulin G1/G2 is expressed at the messenger RNA level of peripheral blood B lymphocytes in patients with gynecologic malignancies," Cancer , vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 461-467, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • It also confirms the genetic heterogeneity between the primary neoplasm of breast cancer patients and their respective metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: Data was abstracted from the medical records of all breast cancer patients attending Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania for a 2-year period from July 2007 to June 2009. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We studied how normal and mammary carcinoma cell growth and motility are affected by surgical wound fluids (WF), collected over 24 h following breast-conserving surgery in 45 patients, 20 of whom had received additional TARG eted I ntraoperative radio T herapy (TARGIT), immediately after the surgical excision. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund analyzes published research, explains contradictory research findings, and helps health professionals, patients, and consumers understand the implications by explaining the findings in reports, published articles, and on its website. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years the protein has become an important biomarker and target of therapy for approximately 30% of breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that patients with ER+ (Estrogen receptor positive)/HER2+ compared with ER-/HER2+ breast cancers may actually benefit more from drugs that inhibit the PI3K/AKT molecular pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brand ties together fear of cancer, hope for early identification and successful treatment, and the moral goodness of women with breast cancer and anyone who visibly identifies themselves with breast cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrence
  • After apparently successful excision of breast cancer, risk of local recurrence remains high mainly in the area surrounding the original tumor, indicating that wound healing processes may be implicated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • therapies
  • This makes it more difficult to treat since most hormone therapies target one of the three receptors, so triple-negative cancers often require combination therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings suggest that interference with Wnt signaling at the ligand-receptor level may improve the effectiveness of cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)