• Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate cancer (PC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among men worldwide and the second most common cancer form with an estimated 1.1 million diagnoses in 2012. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND: It is difficult to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy for prostate cancer because men with negative biopsy do not undergo radical prostatectomy and thus have no confirmation of biopsy findings. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: We performed 18-core needle biopsies on autopsy prostates from 164 men who had no history of prostate cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: Prostate cancer was present in 47 (29%) prostates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ability to detect prostate cancer was more related to the biopsy site than to the number of biopsy cores taken. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There is currently no consensus on the correlations between androgen concentrations in prostate tissue and blood and stage and pathological grade of prostate cancer. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we used a newly-developed ultra-sensitive liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to measure testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in blood and needle biopsy prostate specimens from patients with prostate cancer. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We analyzed androgen levels in 196 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The results of this study indicate that high T levels in prostate tissue are related to high Gleason score, advanced clinical stage, and a high percentage of positive biopsy cores in patients with prostate cancer. (beds.ac.uk)
  • T level in needle biopsy specimens may therefore be a useful prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Prostate cancer is the most common internal cancer and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although the incidence of prostate cancer in Japan is lower than in the United States, it has been gradually increasing in recent years. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The etiology of prostate cancer is unclear, but it is thought to be multifactorial, with genetic, dietary, and environmental causes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although prostate cancer initially responds to androgen ablation therapy, most patients ultimately become hormone-refractory and show treatment failure. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The ability to predict prostate tumor behavior is important, because more intensive treatment is necessary to prevent the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (beds.ac.uk)
  • There have been few reports regarding the correlation between prostate cancer aggressiveness and androgen concentrations measured in smaller prostate tissue samples, such as those obtained by needle biopsy. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It is common in head and neck cancer, prostate cancer and colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Forsythe was charged by the Nevada Board of Medical Examiners with diagnosing a patient with prostate cancer and administering chemotherapy without verifying the diagnosis with a biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active surveillance (AS) or watchful waiting is a management option for localized prostate cancer that can be offered to appropriate patients who would also be candidates for aggressive local therapies (surgery and radiotherapy), with the intent to intervene if the disease progresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • AS offers men with a prostate cancer that is thought to have a low risk of causing harm in the absence of treatment, a chance to delay or avoid aggressive treatment and its associated side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • While prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non cutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men, it is conservatively estimated that approximately 100,000 men per year in the United States who would be eligible for conservative treatment through active surveillance (AS), undergo unnecessary treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The management of localized prostate cancer is controversial and men with localized disease diagnosed today often undergo treatments with significant side effects that will not improve overall health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2011 NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on the "Role of active surveillance in the management of men with localized prostate cancer" pointed out the many unanswered questions about observational strategies for prostate cancer that require further research and clarification. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the meantime, active surveillance for the treatment of low risk prostate cancer is now being offered to more and more patients where it is generally considered that prostate cancer will not cause the man harm during his lifetime if treatment is delayed or avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening for prostate cancer led to earlier detection of prostate cancer (stage migration), and thus altered the course of the disease in the absence of treatment (natural history). (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer increased with widespread PSA testing, as did the length of time that men live with their disease, as compared to the pre PSA era. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, because prostate cancer progresses slowly and is found most often in older men with competing risks of mortality, the extent to which these changes in natural history have resulted in benefit and harm are also debatable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The course of prostate cancer in the absence of treatment (natural history) has been evaluated both in observational studies and randomized trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the evidence on the outcomes of men that are not treated for prostate cancer comes from those diagnosed in the era prior to PSA screening when the disease was diagnosed at a more advanced state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcomes of men who are not treated for prostate cancer is dependent on cancer grade (the higher the grade the more aggressive), the life expectancy of the patient with the disease, and whether or not the cancer was detected through screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of death from prostate cancer at 10 years for men age 65-74 years with moderately differentiated cancers (Gleason score 5-7) diagnosed with screening (in the PSA era) and pre PSA eras (without screening) were from 2-6%, and from 15-23%, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer screening is an attempt to identify individuals with prostate cancer in a broad segment of the population-those for whom there is no reason to suspect prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, they conclude that based on recent research, "it is uncertain whether the benefits associated with PSA testing for prostate cancer screening are worth the harms associated with screening and subsequent unnecessary treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer can develop into a fatal, painful disease, but it can also develop so slowly that it will never cause problems during the man's lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This October 2011 recommendation is based on a review of evidence and concludes that "prostate-specific antigen-based screening results in small or no reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality and is associated with harms related to subsequent evaluation and treatments, some of which may be unnecessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hal Arkes presents the statistical case as follows: If there were two auditoriums each filled with 1,000 men, one filled with men who had taken PSA screening tests and the other with men who didn't take the test, there would be just as many men (8) "who died of prostate cancer in each auditorium, which leads us to think in the aggregate it didn't do any good. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recommendation has been criticized by many prostate cancer experts for an over-reliance on findings of the U.S. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSA testing of men in their mid-70s and older, is discouraged as most people at this age diagnosed with prostate cancer detected by a PSA test would die of other causes before the cancer caused problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, up to 25% of men diagnosed in their 70s or even 80s die of prostate cancer, if they have high-grade (i.e., aggressive) prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This argument again ignores the fact that low-risk prostate cancer does not require immediate treatment, but may be amenable to active surveillance. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • When doctors notice unusual lesions, tumors, or masses, they can collect samples to check for cancer and other diseases. (ufl.edu)
  • Cancers with PNI usually have a poorer prognosis, as PNI is thought to be indicative of perineural spread, which can make resection of malignant lesions more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue samples
  • First, we confirmed the presence of hypermethylation of all genes in malignant (n=48) compared to non-malignant biopsy tissue samples (n=40) using quantitative methylation specific PCR (pBonferroniā‰¤0.00002 in Mann Whitney U test, AUC range 0.80-0.98 in ROC analysis). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This biopsy needle uses a cylindrical coaxial design to extract tissue samples from patients more effectively than available needle designs. (ufl.edu)
  • Doctors can complete fine needle aspirations or core needle biopsies with less pain for patients, reduced damage to tissue samples, and more accuracy in cancer screen procedures, leading to cost savings. (ufl.edu)
  • surgical
  • When the specimen is evaluated, in addition to diagnosis, the amount of uninvolved tissue around the lesion, the surgical margin of the specimen is examined to see if the disease has spread beyond the area biopsied. (wikipedia.org)
  • This facility is a state of the art surgical facility in the country for cancer surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • The doctor said I was lucky that the nodule is in the bottom portion of my left lung which means it is not in an area to give a problem doing the needle biopsy(no msjor blood vessels etc). (cancer.org)
  • peripheral zone
  • Six-core biopsies were taken from each of the mid peripheral zone (MPZ), the lateral peripheral zone (LPZ), and the central zone (CZ). (ox.ac.uk)
  • detection
  • The results of our study suggest that detection of epigenetic field effects in cancer-negative prostate biopsy samples may be used to increase the sensitivity for PC detection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn's disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation. (springer.com)
  • malignant
  • Next, non-malignant biopsy samples from men with (n=39) or without (n=40) cancer in other biopsies were compared. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, a 4-gene model (HAPLN3/GSTP1/AOX1/SLC18A2) was able to separate the 2 groups of non-malignant samples with an AUC of 0.65 in ROC analysis (PPV = 100 %, NPV = 59.7 %), indicating the existence of an epigenetic cancer field effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pathologic examination of a biopsy can determine whether a lesion is benign or malignant, and can help differentiate between different types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cores
  • The 12-core biopsies, six cores each from the MPZ and LPZ, were most likely to detect the majority of clinically significant cancers but also detected many insignificant cancers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We analyzed the relationships between T and DHT levels in tissue and blood and Gleason score, clinical stage, and percentage of positive biopsy cores, using multivariate analysis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • high T levels in prostate tissue were significantly related to high Gleason score (p = 0.041), advanced clinical stage (p = 0.002), and a high percentage of positive biopsy cores (p = 0.001). (beds.ac.uk)
  • 100,000
  • According to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), the incidence of papillary cancer has increase from 4.8 to 14.9 per 100,000 from 1975 to 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, death rates from papillary cancer remains static from 2003 to 2012 at 0.5 per 100,000 men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though there are no national survey records, it is estimated that deaths due to cancer are 120 per 100,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • In pathology, perineural invasion, abbreviated PNI, refers to cancer spreading to the space surrounding a nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small masses are usually completely excised and sent to the pathology lab to confirm that the surrounding healthy tissues that were excised along with the tumor do not contain any cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathology department: The department is state of the art diagnostic department for cancer diagnosis as well for monitoring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gleason
  • The outcomes of men with moderately differentiated (Gleason scores 5-7) and poorly differentiated (Gleason scores 8-10) cancers managed without treatment (watchful waiting), was compared in the PSA era (1992-2002) and pre PSA era (prior to 1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Females are more likely to get papillary cancer when compared to males with incidence ratio of 2.5 to 1 where most of the cancers are diagnosed between 40 and 50 years old in females. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was an increased incidence of papillary cancer from 1910 to 1960 due to the use of ioninsing radiation in treating childhood head and neck cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • The tests analyze circulating tumor cells (CTCs) Analysis of individual CTCs demonstrated a high level of heterogeneity seen at the single cell level for both protein expression and protein localization and the CTCs reflected both the primary biopsy and the changes seen in the metastatic sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • smaller
  • University of Florida researchers have developed a coaxial biopsy needle - an inner stylet positioned within an external needle - that can extract a bigger sample while using a smaller needle diameter, which can reduce the discomfort felt by the patient. (ufl.edu)
  • findings
  • Prostate cancers detected by PSA screening are detected at an earlier stage and generally take longer to progress without treatment, as compared to cancers detected because of physical findings (abnormal digital rectal examination) and/or symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • By detecting and quantifying genomic alterations in CTCs and cell-free DNA in blood, liquid biopsy can provide real-time information on the stage of tumor progression, treatment effectiveness, and cancer metastasis risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • rectal
  • In GI surgery, three field lymphhadenectomy for carcinoma esophagus, D2 dissection for cancer of stomach, low and very low anterior resections for rectal cancers to preserve anus, Abdominoperineal excision resection for advanced rectal cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • resection
  • In contrast to a biopsy that merely samples a lesion, a larger excisional specimen called a resection may come to a pathologist, typically from a surgeon attempting to eradicate a known lesion from a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Head and Neck oncology team expertises in Advanced composite resection and flap reconstructions of buccal mucosal, tongue and gingival cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, older men with a limited life expectancy, particularly if detected through screening, may not live long enough to be harmed by the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • We tested associations between age and tumor characteristics and analyzed the sensitivity of biopsies at each site. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are two types of liquid biopsy (which is not really a biopsy as they are blood tests that do not require a biopsy of tissue): circulating tumor cell assays or cell-free circulating tumor DNA tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, a biopsy can remove the whole tumor, as long as the healthy tissues removed from just outside the tumor area do not contain any cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speciality is this lab measures tumor markers for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. (wikipedia.org)