• auditory
  • The external ear is composed of the pinna (auricle), the external auditory canal ( EAC ), or simply ear canal, and the outer layer of the tympanic membrane ( TM ), also known as the eardrum. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The ear canal or external auditory canal is the second part of the outer ear and is the opening and passageway that leads to the eardrum. (crosswalk.com)
  • Research has shown, like songbirds, females in some species of fish show seasonal variation in auditory processing and the sensitivity of the saccule of females peaks during the breeding season. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, lesions of the internal auditory canal may be associated with facial weakness on the same side. (wikipedia.org)
  • cupula
  • Endolymph follows the rotation of the canal, however, due to inertia lags behind initially, which bends and activates the cupula. (wikipedia.org)
  • After any extended rotation the endolymph catches up to the canal and the cupula returns to its upright position and resets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The movement of fluid pushes on a structure called the cupula, which contains hair cells that transduce the mechanical movement to electrical signals The canals are arranged in such a way that each canal on the left side has an almost parallel counterpart on the right side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains a motion sensor with hair-like protrusions whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cupula and the hairs move as the fluid moves inside the canal in response to an angular acceleration. (wikipedia.org)
  • rotational
  • Information from the semicircular canals reflects rotational movement of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason a pilot can be unaware of such an attitude change in the first place is that human exposure to a rotational acceleration of 1 degree per second squared or lower is below the detection threshold of the semicircular canals. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the head is still and the airplane is straight and level, the fluid in the canals does not move and the hairs stand straight up, indicating to the brain that there is no rotational acceleration (a turn). (wikipedia.org)
  • excitatory
  • Each canal is maximally responsive to angular motion in the plane in which it is situated and is paired with a canal on the contralateral side so that stimuli that are excitatory to one are inhibitory to the other. (medscape.com)
  • senses
  • The utricle senses motion in the horizontal plane (eg, forward-backward movement, left-right movement, or a combination thereof). (medscape.com)
  • rotation
  • The result of this arrangement is that 3 canals can uniquely specify the direction and amplitude of any arbitrary head rotation. (medscape.com)
  • Illusions involving the semicircular and somatogyral canals of the vestibular system of the ear occur primarily under conditions of unreliable or unavailable external visual references and result in false sensations of rotation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This push-pull system makes it possible to sense all directions of rotation: while the right horizontal canal gets stimulated during head rotations to the right (Fig 2), the left horizontal canal gets stimulated (and thus predominantly signals) by head rotations to the left. (wikipedia.org)
  • head
  • The saccule translates head movements into neural impulses which the brain can interpret. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saccule, like the utricle, provides information to the brain about head position when it is not moving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balance can be upset by Ménière's disease, superior canal dehiscence syndrome, an inner ear infection, by a bad common cold affecting the head or a number of other medical conditions including but not limited to vertigo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial head tilt to right will cause stimulation of the right utricle resulting in excitory signals to pass to the SR and SO (right eye), and IO and IR (left eye). (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of any lesion from the utricle to the brainstem, diminished input from the affected vestibular pathway, for example the left vestibular is the same as stimulation of right vestibular pathway, resulting in the erroneous interpretation by the brain that the head is tilted to the right and consequently that the SVV is tilted to the left. (wikipedia.org)
  • This involves the simultaneous stimulation of two semicircular canals and is associated with a sudden tilting (forward or backwards) of the pilot's head while the aircraft is turning. (wikipedia.org)
  • right angles
  • The semicircular canals are three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear that are the equivalent of three gyroscopes located in three planes perpendicular (at right angles) to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each canal is oriented at right angles to the others, enabling detection of movement in any plane. (wikipedia.org)