• isolates
  • The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were indistinguishable when restricted separately by two enzymes, Sma I and Kpn I. This PFGE pattern had never been reported among 667 specimens from which C. jejuni was isolated in Wyoming and is rare in CDC's PulseNet* database, with a frequency of 0.09% (8 of 8,817). (cdc.gov)
  • Such variations in the disease outcome might correlate with the well documented different virulence potential of individual C. jejuni isolates and are possibly linked to dissimilarities in motility and surface structures involved in the direct interaction with the host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we analysed the population structure of a total of 250 Finnish C. jejuni isolates from bovines, poultry meat and humans collected in 2003 using a combination of Bayesian clustering (BAPS software) and phylogenetic analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the first phase we analysed sequence types (STs) of 102 Finnish bovine C. jejuni isolates by MLST and found a high diversity totalling 50 STs of which nearly half were novel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the second phase we included MLST data from domestic human isolates as well as poultry C. jejuni isolates from the same time period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Draft genome sequences of two Campylobacter jejuni clinical isolates, NW and D2600. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular typing approaches, especially multilocus sequence typing (MLST), have been used to attribute the source of human campylobacteriosis by quantifying the relative abundance of alleles at seven MLST loci among isolates from animal reservoirs and human infection, implicating chicken as a major infection source. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we present a source attribution approach based on the identification of novel epidemiological markers among a reference pan-genome list of 1,810 genes identified by gene-by-gene comparison of 884 genomes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from animal reservoirs, the environment, and clinical cases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fifteen loci involved in metabolic activities, protein modification, signal transduction, and stress response or coding for hypothetical proteins were selected as host-segregating markers and used to attribute the source of 42 French and 281 United Kingdom clinical C. jejuni isolates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A systematic analysis using gene-by-gene comparison of 884 genomes of C. jejuni isolates, with a pan-genome list of genes, identified 15 novel epidemiological markers for source attribution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The different proportions of French and United Kingdom clinical isolates attributed to each host reservoir illustrate a potential role for local/national variations in C. jejuni transmission dynamics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Shigella
  • What infective dose is required for Shigella dysenteriae infection? (brainscape.com)
  • What is the typical symptom progression in Shigella dysenteriae infection? (brainscape.com)
  • Generally the focus of study is "orphan" illnesses with little or no investment by major pharmaceutical companies and includes parasitic infection such as malaria and leishmaniasis, viral diseases such as dengue fever and other arboviruses, and bacterial illnesses like traveler's diarrhea (ETEC, campylobacter, shigella). (wikipedia.org)
  • its S. typhimurium infection is caused by consumption of eggs or poultry that are not adequately cooked or by other interactive human-animal pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) which can cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome Other common bacterial foodborne pathogens are: Bacillus cereus Escherichia coli, other virulence properties, such as enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC or EAgEC) Listeria monocytogenes Shigella spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Mice kept on an ~6% fat diet or switched from an ~12% fat diet to an ~6% fat diet just before infection with a non-adapted strain also exhibited increased incidence and severity of disease and decreased time to develop disease, although the effects of diet were only statistically significant in one experiment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In 1994 two scientists, Scott and Kaper, successfully cloned and sequenced a cdt operon from another E. coli strain, publishing their accomplishment in Infection and Immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The success of these clinical trials to date, which are summarized here, are prompting hospitals around the world to specify antimicrobial copper touch surfaces as an additional weapon in the fight against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Mechanisms by which an infection can lead to an autoimmune process have been examined in experimental animal models, and these concepts as well as their relevance to human diseases will be discussed here. (jci.org)
  • In general terms, mechanisms based on microbial products - such as peptides or superantigens - need to be distinguished from mechanisms based on the inflammatory setting that results from an infection. (jci.org)
  • poultry
  • Neither patient with laboratory-confirmed illness reported consumption of poultry or unpasteurized dairy products, which are common sources of exposure to C. jejuni ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Our results differ from those obtained in other countries where poultry has been identified as the most important source for human infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The low prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry flocks in Finland could explain the lower attribution of human infection to poultry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. jejuni has a wide distribution among different warm-blooded animals, including poultry, bovines, pigs, cats, dogs and various wild animals [ 10 , 11 ] and birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All types of poultry and wild birds can become colonized with Campylobacter. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Campylobacter jejuni is the leading antecedent infection to the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is accompanied by an autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibody attack on peripheral nerves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epitope spreading may be particularly relevant in diseases caused by chronic infection of the target organ, and in the chronic stage of an autoimmune process. (jci.org)
  • Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus run in families, and certain cases may be triggered by infections or other environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. jejuni can also cause a latent autoimmune effect on the nerves of the legs, which is usually seen several weeks after a surgical procedure of the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • commensal
  • Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant. (frontiersin.org)
  • genome
  • In recent years comparative genome sequence, transcriptome and metabolome analyses as well as mutagenesis studies combined with animal infection models have provided a new understanding of how the specific metabolic capacity of C. jejuni drives its persistence in the intestinal habitat of various hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • diseases
  • Other causes of TM include infections, immune system disorders, and demyelinating diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since approximately 80% of infectious diseases are known to be transmitted by touch, and pathogens found in healthcare facilities can survive on inanimate surfaces for days and even months, the microbial burden of frequently touched surfaces is believed to play a significant role in infection causality. (wikipedia.org)
  • multilocus
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been successfully applied to population genetics of Campylobacter jejuni and mathematical modelling can be applied to the sequence data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, during the last decade - after its description for C. jejuni - multilocus sequence typing (MLST) [ 13 ] has generally been accepted as the most suitable method for population genetic analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • dysentery
  • As C. jejuni is only susceptible to erythromycin, it is crucial to make the differential diagnosis from dysentery caused by Shigellae or by Entamoeba histolytica , in order to prescribe the appropriate treatment 3 . (springer.com)
  • foodborne
  • Corynebacterium ulcerans Coxiella burnetii or Q fever Plesiomonas shigelloides In addition to disease caused by direct bacterial infection, some foodborne illnesses are caused by enterotoxins (exotoxins targeting the intestines). (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • In patients with HIV, infections may be more frequent, may cause prolonged bouts of dirty brown diarrhea, and may be more commonly associated with bacteremia and antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Campylobacter jejuni (/ˈkæmpɪloʊˌbæktər dʒəˈdʒuːni/) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Chile, 70,000 nosocomial infections are reported each year, most commonly from common hospital-borne pathogens such as S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and A.baumanii. (wikipedia.org)
  • unclear
  • This progressive loss of the fatty myelin sheath surrounding the nerves in the affected spinal cord occurs for unclear reasons following infections or due to multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolation
  • Among the many causes of diarrhoea, C. jejuni 1 is seldom reported in the routine search for pathogens due to the special conditions it requires for isolation and growth. (springer.com)
  • intracellular
  • Furthermore, new insights into the metabolic requirements that support the intracellular survival of C. jejuni were obtained. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infection can also result in lymphocyte activation when intracellular signaling pathways are manipulated by lymphotropic viruses (Table 1 ). (jci.org)
  • secondary
  • CONCLUSION: C. jejuni has not been isolated earlier in a case of uveal effusion presenting as secondary angle closure glaucoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To evaluate their effectiveness as secondary infection control measures, these products have been made from copper and its alloys and deployed in hospital geriatric wards, intensive care units, and general medical wards around the world. (wikipedia.org)