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  • stimulation
  • It can be elicited by caloric (hot or cold) stimulation of the inner ear, and works even in total darkness or when the eyes are closed. (wikipedia.org)
  • With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who since his first article 55 years ago on compensatory eye movements induced by vertical SCC stimulation has become one of the giants of the vestibular world. (frontiersin.org)
  • sensory
  • It relies on a complex, simultaneous interaction of the motor system, sensory control, and cognitive functions. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Further, even if sensorimotor function is relatively intact, older adults may have deficits in central integration of these various sensory signals to generate a coherent motor output. (frontiersin.org)
  • Even without any vestibular sensory input, this patient could nonetheless generate reasonably smooth compensatory eye movement responses to that stimulus, which shows that low-frequency, low-acceleration head rotation is not a valid indicator of semicircular canal (SCC) function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sensory ganglia exist for nerves with sensory function: V, VII, VIII, IX, X. There are also parasympathetic ganglia, which are part of the autonomic nervous system for cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X. The trigeminal ganglia of the trigeminal nerve (V) occupies a space in the dura mater called Trigeminal cave. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebral cortex is a group of tight, dense, "gray matter" composed of the nuclei of the neurons whose axons then form the "white matter," and is responsible for perception, relay of the sensory input via the thalamic pathway, and many other neurological functions, including complex thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vestibular system is the sensory system located in the inner ear that helps the body to maintain balance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The sensory organs that play critical roles relaying information to the brain-stem include the skin, eyes, muscles and joints, and the vestibular system in the inner ear. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Three types of sensory analyses on pitch angle and velocity amplitudes for stance trials were used to quantify possible changes in the contributions of visual, somatosensory and vestibular inputs to balance control with age for 2-legged stance tasks. (iospress.com)
  • The sensory analysis technique using differences between stance tests indicated that visual contributions to balance control continuously increased with age between the ages of 15 and 80, and vestibular and lower leg somatosensory contributions remain relatively constant with age. (iospress.com)
  • responses
  • The basic requirements of the field were to be able to produce a repeating sound, some way to attenuate the amplitude, a way to transmit the sound to the subject, and a means to record and interpret the subject's responses to the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optokinetics generally are used as a cross-check on abnormal responses to oculomotor tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Initial MRIs including diffusion-weighted images were normal or equivocal, but follow-up imaging disclosed a circumscribed acute infarction in the area of the vestibular nuclei. (biomedsearch.com)
  • clinical
  • A second theme that follows from the first is the clear need for efficient clinical tests that identify clinically meaningful vestibular loss in older adults. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is, therefore, critical for useful clinical tests to disambiguate the various layers of potential contributing factors (i.e., primary sensorimotor deficits, deficits in central integration, and deficits in compensation) within a given older adult, with the goal of providing "personalized" strategies to improve balance function. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the clinical tests of stability, two subjects showed deviations to the right, while one subject performed normally. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While ENG is the most widely used clinical laboratory test to assess vestibular function, normal ENG test results do not necessarily mean that a patient has typical vestibular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • It is elicited by rotation of the neck, thereby stimulating proprioceptive afferents from deep neck muscles and joint capsula from C1 to C3 to the vestibular nucleus, 7 leading to eye movements that oppose the direction of the head movement. (arvojournals.org)
  • Another pathway (not in picture) directly projects from the vestibular nucleus through the ascending tract of Dieters to the ipsilateral medial rectus motoneuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition there are inhibitory vestibular pathways to the ipsilateral abducens nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lesion
  • For example, involvement of CN V from a cerebellopontine mass lesion often results in loss of the ipsilateral (same side of the body) corneal reflex (involuntary blink). (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Vestibular Research is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes experimental and observational studies, review papers, and theoretical papers based on current knowledge of the vestibular system. (iospress.com)
  • The global population is aging, and age-related degeneration of the vestibular system is a widespread phenomenon that occurs as part of the normal aging process. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study hypothesis is that the HIT recorded by standard VNG equipment of the VNG system would provide diagnostic information on the side of vestibular involvement matching that of the ABBT. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drugs damage or weaken the synaptic functioning in the ARAS and keep the system from properly functioning to arouse the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vestibular system monitors the position and movements of the head to stabilize retinal images. (wikipedia.org)
  • proprioceptive
  • Problems with balance can occur when there is a disruption in any of the vestibular, visual, or proprioceptive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third technique based on a discriminant function analysis using measures from model patient populations indicated that proprioceptive but not vestibular contributions first increased with age and then decreased after 55 years of age. (iospress.com)
  • cognitive
  • Music therapists primarily help clients improve their health in several domains, such as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social skills, and quality of life by using both active and passive music experiences such as free improvisation, song, dance, listening, and discussion of music to achieve treatment goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • The B_r_ny Society is named after Prof. Dr. Robert B_r_ny who clarifie d the physiology and pathology of the human vestibular apparatus and w as awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in 1914. (ecampus.com)
  • abnormal
  • Secondary effects of drugs, which include abnormal heart rate and blood pressure, as well as abnormal breathing and sweating, may also indirectly harm the functioning of the ARAS and lead to a coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • This reflex functions to stabilize images on the retinas (in yoked vision[clarification needed]) during head movement by producing eye movements in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field(s).[citation needed] For example, when the head moves to the right, the eyes move to the left, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] However, in the presence of light, the fixation reflex is also added to the movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • schwannoma
  • To ascertain the utility of cVEMP in diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma in conjunction with the ABR and to evaluate whether the size of lesion has any effect on the cVEMP measures. (rborl.org.br)
  • Case-files of 15 known cases of vestibular schwannoma whose pure tone audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR), cVEMP and radiological investigation findings were available, were included in the study. (rborl.org.br)
  • ABR and cVEMP, when used in combination, can be of immense use in identification of neuro-otologic conditions such as vestibular schwannoma and bilateral tumours in NF2. (rborl.org.br)
  • Os potenciais evocados miogênicos vestibulares cervicais (cVEMP) podem avaliar a integridade do nervo vestibular inferior, prometendo assim ser uma ferramenta útil na bateria de testes audiológicos para o diagnóstico de schwannoma vestibular. (rborl.org.br)
  • Determinar a utilidade de cVEMP no diagnóstico de schwannoma vestibular em conjunto com PEATE e avaliar se o tamanho da lesão tem qualquer efeito sobre as medidas do cVEMP. (rborl.org.br)
  • Quinze casos conhecidos de schwannoma vestibular cujos achados de audiometria tonal pura, Potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico (PEATE), cVEMP e investigação radiológica estavam disponíveis foram incluídos no estudo. (rborl.org.br)
  • PEATE e cVEMP, quando utilizadas em combinação, podem ser úteis na identificação de condições neuro-otológicas como schwannoma vestibular e tumores bilaterais em NF2. (rborl.org.br)
  • sensory
  • The cerebral cortex is a group of tight, dense, "gray matter" composed of the nuclei of the neurons whose axons then form the "white matter," and is responsible for perception, relay of the sensory input via the thalamic pathway, and many other neurological functions, including complex thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • organ
  • Though the semicircular canals cause most of the reflexes which are responsive to acceleration, the maintaining of balance is mediated by the stretch of neck muscles and the pull of gravity on the utricle (otolith organ) of the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Another pathway (not in picture) directly projects from the vestibular nucleus through the ascending tract of Dieters to the ipsilateral medial rectus motoneuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • However no direct vestibular neuron to medial rectus motoneuron pathway exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • The B_r_ny Society is named after Prof. Dr. Robert B_r_ny who clarifie d the physiology and pathology of the human vestibular apparatus and w as awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in 1914. (ecampus.com)
  • responses
  • The basic requirements of the field were to be able to produce a repeating sound, some way to attenuate the amplitude, a way to transmit the sound to the subject, and a means to record and interpret the subject's responses to the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • In cardiac myocytes a complex network of membrane tubules - the transverse-axial tubule system (TATS) - controls deep intracellular signaling functions. (jove.com)
  • A reflex is built into the nervous system and does not need the intervention of conscious thought to take effect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When an action is done repeatedly the nervous system becomes familiar with the situation and learns to react automatically, and a new reflex is built into the system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The vestibular system monitors the position and movements of the head to stabilize retinal images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs damage or weaken the synaptic functioning in the ARAS and keep the system from properly functioning to arouse the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). (wikipedia.org)
  • markedly
  • Correspondingly, AMPK?2 KO mice had markedly reduced cardiac function during CR as determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. (jove.com)
  • Lesion
  • Fujimoto C, Iwasaki S, Matsuzaki M, Murofushi T (2005) Lesion site in idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy: a galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potential study. (springer.com)
  • For example, involvement of CN V from a cerebellopontine mass lesion often results in loss of the ipsilateral (same side of the body) corneal reflex (involuntary blink). (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Music therapists primarily help clients improve their health in several domains, such as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social skills, and quality of life by using both active and passive music experiences such as free improvisation, song, dance, listening, and discussion of music to achieve treatment goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive deficits are not just spatial in nature, but also include non-spatial functions such as object recognition memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnose
  • Results of audiometric tests are used to diagnose hearing loss or diseases of the ear, and often make use of an audiogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • trauma
  • Many animals that are showing signs of vestibular disease are hospitalized to observe and prevent self inflicted trauma. (petvetoasis.com)
  • It may also be deliberately induced by pharmaceutical agents during major neurosurgery, to preserve higher brain functions following brain trauma, or to save the patient from extreme pain during healing of injuries or diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • Bainbridge reflex a rise in pressure in, or increased distension of, the large somatic veins or the right atrium causes acceleration of the heart beat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • neurological
  • Subsequently, an individualized treatment plan is constructed targeting these under functioning regions utilizing advanced, neurological, physical therapy, and nutritional rehabilitative mechanisms. (thecondecenter.com)
  • For a patient to maintain consciousness, two important neurological components must function. (wikipedia.org)