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  • stimulation
  • It can be elicited by caloric (hot or cold) stimulation of the inner ear, and works even in total darkness or when the eyes are closed. (wikipedia.org)
  • With thanks and appreciation we dedicate this article to our friend, colleague, and mentor, Dr Bernard Cohen of Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, who since his first article 55 years ago on compensatory eye movements induced by vertical SCC stimulation has become one of the giants of the vestibular world. (frontiersin.org)
  • sensory
  • Further, even if sensorimotor function is relatively intact, older adults may have deficits in central integration of these various sensory signals to generate a coherent motor output. (frontiersin.org)
  • Even without any vestibular sensory input, this patient could nonetheless generate reasonably smooth compensatory eye movement responses to that stimulus, which shows that low-frequency, low-acceleration head rotation is not a valid indicator of semicircular canal (SCC) function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three types of sensory analyses on pitch angle and velocity amplitudes for stance trials were used to quantify possible changes in the contributions of visual, somatosensory and vestibular inputs to balance control with age for 2-legged stance tasks. (iospress.com)
  • The sensory analysis technique using differences between stance tests indicated that visual contributions to balance control continuously increased with age between the ages of 15 and 80, and vestibular and lower leg somatosensory contributions remain relatively constant with age. (iospress.com)
  • The cerebral cortex is a group of tight, dense, "gray matter" composed of the nuclei of the neurons whose axons then form the "white matter," and is responsible for perception, relay of the sensory input via the thalamic pathway, and many other neurological functions, including complex thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Initial MRIs including diffusion-weighted images were normal or equivocal, but follow-up imaging disclosed a circumscribed acute infarction in the area of the vestibular nuclei. (biomedsearch.com)
  • nucleus
  • It is elicited by rotation of the neck, thereby stimulating proprioceptive afferents from deep neck muscles and joint capsula from C1 to C3 to the vestibular nucleus, 7 leading to eye movements that oppose the direction of the head movement. (arvojournals.org)
  • Another pathway (not in picture) directly projects from the vestibular nucleus through the ascending tract of Dieters to the ipsilateral medial rectus motoneuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition there are inhibitory vestibular pathways to the ipsilateral abducens nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • The basic requirements of the field were to be able to produce a repeating sound, some way to attenuate the amplitude, a way to transmit the sound to the subject, and a means to record and interpret the subject's responses to the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optokinetics generally are used as a cross-check on abnormal responses to oculomotor tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Balance is the result of several body systems working together: the visual system (eyes), vestibular system (ears) and proprioception (the body's sense of where it is in space). (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical term for all of the parts of the inner ear involved with balance is the vestibular system. (findmeacure.com)
  • The Journal of Vestibular Research is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes experimental and observational studies, review papers, and theoretical papers based on current knowledge of the vestibular system. (iospress.com)
  • The global population is aging, and age-related degeneration of the vestibular system is a widespread phenomenon that occurs as part of the normal aging process. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study hypothesis is that the HIT recorded by standard VNG equipment of the VNG system would provide diagnostic information on the side of vestibular involvement matching that of the ABBT. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drugs damage or weaken the synaptic functioning in the ARAS and keep the system from properly functioning to arouse the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vestibular system monitors the position and movements of the head to stabilize retinal images. (wikipedia.org)
  • proprioceptive
  • Problems with balance can occur when there is a disruption in any of the vestibular, visual, or proprioceptive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third technique based on a discriminant function analysis using measures from model patient populations indicated that proprioceptive but not vestibular contributions first increased with age and then decreased after 55 years of age. (iospress.com)
  • electronystagmography
  • Calorics are usually a subtest of the electronystagmography (ENG) battery of tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of these benefits, ABBT is the most time-consuming part of the electronystagmography/Videonystagmography (ENG/VNG) test battery, and frequently causes significant inconvenience to the patient due to the repeated extreme vestibular stimuli. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • inner ear
  • Though the semicircular canals cause most of the reflexes which are responsive to acceleration, the maintaining of balance is mediated by the stretch of neck muscles and the pull of gravity on the utricle (otolith organ) of the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VOR is ultimately driven by signals from the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • All the facts on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment are presented in this article in a compact way, together with all the test-relevant details. (lecturio.com)
  • lesion
  • For example, involvement of CN V from a cerebellopontine mass lesion often results in loss of the ipsilateral (same side of the body) corneal reflex (involuntary blink). (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • The B_r_ny Society is named after Prof. Dr. Robert B_r_ny who clarifie d the physiology and pathology of the human vestibular apparatus and w as awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in 1914. (ecampus.com)
  • abnormal
  • Secondary effects of drugs, which include abnormal heart rate and blood pressure, as well as abnormal breathing and sweating, may also indirectly harm the functioning of the ARAS and lead to a coma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • This reflex functions to stabilize images on the retinas (in yoked vision[clarification needed]) during head movement by producing eye movements in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field(s).[citation needed] For example, when the head moves to the right, the eyes move to the left, and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] However, in the presence of light, the fixation reflex is also added to the movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical
  • The Hamburg Diving Medicine Centre analyses the function of the Eustachian tubes with surgical dilatation of the diameter of the tubes (tubal dilatation), treats ear infections and barotrauma of the middle ear. (leading-medicine-guide.com)
  • Cognitive
  • Cognitive deficits are not just spatial in nature, but also include non-spatial functions such as object recognition memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Music therapists primarily help clients improve their health in several domains, such as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social skills, and quality of life by using both active and passive music experiences such as free improvisation, song, dance, listening, and discussion of music to achieve treatment goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • scleral
  • For the next 20 years, between 1988 and 2008, impulsive testing of individual SCC function could only be accurately done by a few aficionados with the time and money to support scleral search-coil systems-an expensive, complicated and cumbersome, semi-invasive technique that never made the transition from the research lab to the dizzy clinic. (frontiersin.org)