• calmodulin
  • Ca 2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) and calcium‐dependent protein kinases (CDPK) indirectly activates the hypersensitive response (HR), defence‐related gene expression and increased salicylic acid (SA) production. (els.net)
  • However, in other cases Ca2+ is sensed through intermediate calcium sensors such as calmodulin (CALM). (genome.jp)
  • Calcium is another special case, in that it is required as a component of the human diet, and it is needed for the full activity of many enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase, protein phosphatases, and adenylate kinase, but calcium activates these enzymes in allosteric regulation, often binding to these enzymes in a complex with calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITP3K is regulated directly by Calmodulin directly and Calcium-Calmodulin dependent kinase II, as well as PKA and PKC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, SK potassium channels are tightly associated with the protein calmodulin, which accounts for the calcium sensitivity of these channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium binds to the protein calmodulin (CaM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostasis
  • Among the functional parameters that can be perturbed by interaction between nanoparticles (NPs) and living structures, calcium homeostasis is one of the key players and has been actively investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • cellular
  • These stimuli induce the formation of Ca 2+ signals within a cell, which are generated through the action of Ca 2+ release and uptake from and into internal cellular stores or the apoplast by the activity of Ca 2+ channels, pumps and exchangers. (els.net)
  • These signals take the form of elevations of Ca 2+ with specific spatio‐temporal characteristics which are thought to denote the initial stimulus and mediate an appropriate cellular response. (els.net)
  • The latest Perspectives in General Physiology series introduces the newest technologies in the field of calcium signaling, which plays a central role in many cellular processes. (brightsurf.com)
  • As calcium signaling involves such a breadth of technical approaches and a wide range of applications, this work contains invaluable information for established researchers, as well as those graduate students and scientists just beginning to find a direction in cellular calcium signaling. (ebooks.com)
  • In the present study we reveal first that 2-APB reversibly and efficiently blocks the robust InsP 3 -mediated signaling pathway of Xenopus oocytes at a stage operating after production of InsP 3 but before its action in mediating the rise in cellular Ca 2+ . (jneurosci.org)
  • This has enhanced our understanding of how calcium as a ubiquitous cellular regulator may control a myriad of cellular processes with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inositol
  • Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling. (springer.com)
  • Growth factors and hormones signal phospholipase C enzymes to hydrolyze the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate (IP3). (qiagen.com)
  • In this system hydrolysis of the phospholipid PIP 2 by phospholipase C (PLC) produces two second messengers: 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) and diacylglycerol (DAG), each eliciting a unique signaling pathway ( Berridge and Irvine, 1984 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • concentration
  • Plotting the ratio of mean indo violet/indo blue emission values at individual time points provides values corresponding to relative calcium concentration of cells within the population over the time course of the experiment. (nih.gov)
  • The alveus projections can form either glutamatergic or cholinergic synapses with the stratum oriens, but the astrocytes of this region respond with changes in calcium concentration only to cholinergic activation of alveus projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • This chapter describes a method by which activating receptor-mediated calcium signaling can be measured in individual murine NK cells using a flow cytometer fitted with a UV laser. (nih.gov)
  • However, the involvement of downstream stages of the signaling pathway leading to opening of surface membrane channels remains elusive in Drosophila as it does in the coupling of entry channels in vertebrate PLC-coupled receptor responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Receptor signaling relays on intracellular events amplified by secondary and tertiary messenger molecules. (ahajournals.org)
  • Ca2+ is one signaling ion that causes this AMPA receptor density change by inducing a cascade of biological changes within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • In addition, molecules involved in cell cycle, DNA repair, metabolism, and immune regulation are also regulated through cAMP or the calcium ion. (qiagen.com)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cAMP/calcium signaling research that enable nalysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • Calcium regulation of gene expression: isn't that spatial? (wikipedia.org)
  • calcineurin
  • Depletion of TMEM110 with RNAi knockdown or Cas9-mediated gene disruption substantially reduces the puncta formation of STIM1 at ER-PM junctions and remarkably inhibits the calcium/calcineurin/NFAT signaling axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • STIM1
  • The mechanisms through which ICRAC occurs are currently still under investigation, although two candidate molecules, Orai1 and STIM1, have been linked by several studies, and a model of store-operated calcium influx, involving these molecules, has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • STIM1-mediated calcium entry is required for thrombin-induced disassembly of VE-cadherin adherens junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • It was later found in 1993 that IP3 is an important second messenger in cell signaling events like "including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • To examine this hypothesis we applied the membrane-permeant InsP 3 R antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), which has proved to be an important probe for assessing InsP 3 R involvement in various signaling systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Low-threshold spikes (LTS) refer to membrane depolarizations by the T-type calcium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • LTS are often triggered after an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) due to the fast recovery of T-type calcium channels during the IPSP and their opening, as there is a return to resting membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Other biochemical roles of calcium include regulating enzyme activity, permeability of ion channels, activity of ion pumps, and components of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Further research provided valuable information on the IP3 pathway, such as the discovery in 1986 that one of the many roles of the calcium released by IP3 is to work with DAG to activate protein kinase C (PKC). (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • According to Hebb, these two cells are strengthened because their signaling occurs together in space and/or time, also known as coincident activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Since this isolation, 3 human isoforms have been found (A,B,C). This enzyme (all isoforms) plays a vital role in the calcium signalling pathway by terminating the propagation of the signal caused by IP3 by converting it to IP4. (wikipedia.org)
  • conductance
  • LTS is a large depolarization due to an increase in Ca2+ conductance, so LTS is mediated by calcium (Ca2+) conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • SK channels (Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) are a subfamily of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • He identified calcium as the principal second messenger in the coupling of neuronal activity to gene expression and characterized the processes that mediate the dialogue between the synapse and the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • In Calcium Signaling, Second Edition, Putney focuses on those processes that generate calcium signals to compile the first comprehensive exploration of calcium signaling research from a methodological standpoint. (ebooks.com)
  • Galione was educated at Felsted School in Essex and Trinity College, Cambridge where he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in Natural Sciences (Pharmacology) in 1985 followed by a PhD in 1989 for research on calcium signalling in the blowfly salivary gland supervised by Michael Berridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galione's research investigates calcium signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • He studied medicine from 1978 to 1984 at Heidelberg University (MD in 1984) and carried out his MD Thesis at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, with Wilhelm Hasselbach (de) on the calcium transport ATPase in skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)