• receptors
  • Expression and signaling of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in astrocytes and microglia. (springer.com)
  • Thrombin signalling and protease-activated receptors. (springer.com)
  • Other chapters examine the study of different systems, ranging from those found in yeast to those found in mammals, and several more are devoted to the cellular and molecular basis for calcium signaling, including explorations of receptors, calcium pumps, apoptosis, and drug delivery. (ebooks.com)
  • The other principal source of Ca2+ for signalling is the internal stores that are located primarily in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), in which inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) or ryanodine receptors (RYRs) regulate the release of Ca2+. (genome.jp)
  • Ryanodine receptors, which function as calcium channels activated by binding of cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), are present in nuclear membranes with their ligand binding sites facing the nucleoplasm. (sciencemag.org)
  • The authors propose that cADPR generated in the nucleoplasm may cause transport of calcium across the inner nuclear membrane through ryanodine receptors and could thereby influence gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • NGF interacts with receptors at axon terminals, and this produces a signal that must be transported up the length of the axon to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A current theory of how such survival signals are sent from axon endings to the soma includes the idea that NGF receptors are endocytosed from the surface of axon tips and that such endocytotic vesicles are transported up the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium enters the cell via voltage activated calcium channels as well as through NMDA receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system, and on the involvement of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in neurodegenerative disorders has been widely cited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of toxic signaling by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that antagonizes gene regulation by synaptic activity and causes neuronal dysfunction and cell death contributed to the understanding of neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Calcium entry and release, its interaction with proteins and resulting events on proteins and organelles are comprehensively depicted by leading experts in the field. (springer.com)
  • Information is therefore hypothesised to be encoded in these signals, which are decoded and relayed to downstream gene expression regulators and protein kinases via an array of Ca 2+ ‐binding sensor proteins. (els.net)
  • A large network of calcium‐binding proteins act as calcium sensors and relay calcium signals to downstream effector proteins. (els.net)
  • Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of mitochondrial transport proteins include the following: The mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which opens in response to increased mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) load and oxidative stress The mitochondrial calcium uniporter which transports calcium from the cytosol of the cell into the mitochondrial matrix The mitochondrial sodium/calcium exchanger, which carries Ca2+ ions out of the matrix in exchange for Na+ ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium binding proteins like parvalbumin play a role in many physiological processes, namely cell-cycle regulation, second messenger production, muscle contraction, organization of microtubules and phototransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • New' functions for 'old' proteins: the role of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k, calretinin and parvalbumin, in cerebellar physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • This book describes the newest discoveries on calcium signaling happening at the cellular and intracellular membranes, often exerted in so called microdomains. (springer.com)
  • These stimuli induce the formation of Ca 2+ signals within a cell, which are generated through the action of Ca 2+ release and uptake from and into internal cellular stores or the apoplast by the activity of Ca 2+ channels, pumps and exchangers. (els.net)
  • These signals take the form of elevations of Ca 2+ with specific spatio‐temporal characteristics which are thought to denote the initial stimulus and mediate an appropriate cellular response. (els.net)
  • As calcium signaling involves such a breadth of technical approaches and a wide range of applications, this work contains invaluable information for established researchers, as well as those graduate students and scientists just beginning to find a direction in cellular calcium signaling. (ebooks.com)
  • This has enhanced our understanding of how calcium as a ubiquitous cellular regulator may control a myriad of cellular processes with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In isolated nuclei from mammalian MC3T3.E1 cells treated to allow storage of calcium in the nuclear envelope, NAD+ or cADPr caused increases in the concentration of nucleoplasmic calcium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Plotting the ratio of mean indo violet/indo blue emission values at individual time points provides values corresponding to relative calcium concentration of cells within the population over the time course of the experiment. (nih.gov)
  • The alveus projections can form either glutamatergic or cholinergic synapses with the stratum oriens, but the astrocytes of this region respond with changes in calcium concentration only to cholinergic activation of alveus projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, these same stimuli are capable of producing either a potentiated calcium concentration response at low frequencies of stimulation or a depressed calcium concentration response at high frequencies of stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Growth factors and hormones signal phospholipase C enzymes to hydrolyze the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate (IP3). (qiagen.com)
  • To examine this hypothesis we applied the membrane-permeant InsP 3 R antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), which has proved to be an important probe for assessing InsP 3 R involvement in various signaling systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Low-threshold spikes (LTS) refer to membrane depolarizations by the T-type calcium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • LTS are often triggered after an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) due to the fast recovery of T-type calcium channels during the IPSP and their opening, as there is a return to resting membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Cell Calcium 24:405-416. (springer.com)
  • Calcium signaling contains a unique selection of chapters that cover a wide range of contemporary topics in this ubiquitous and diverse system of cell signaling. (waterstones.com)
  • 2000) Alteration of stimulus‐specific guard cell calcium oscillations and stomatal closing in Arabidopsis det3 mutant. (els.net)
  • Ca2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. (genome.jp)
  • One major advantage of this method is that the calcium response of the minority NK cell population and even smaller NK cell subpopulations can be measured simultaneously from a mixture of freshly prepared total splenocytes without resorting to prior cell sorting or expansion in culture. (nih.gov)
  • All the above features of 2-APB, together with very fast penetration into the signaling region inside the cell, make 2-APB an ideal reagent for studies of the involvement of the InsP 3 R in Drosophila phototransduction. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, the spread of the signal from the pre-synaptic cell is localized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ca2+ is one signaling ion that causes this AMPA receptor density change by inducing a cascade of biological changes within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcineurin
  • Depletion of TMEM110 with RNAi knockdown or Cas9-mediated gene disruption substantially reduces the puncta formation of STIM1 at ER-PM junctions and remarkably inhibits the calcium/calcineurin/NFAT signaling axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • STIM1
  • The mechanisms through which ICRAC occurs are currently still under investigation, although two candidate molecules, Orai1 and STIM1, have been linked by several studies, and a model of store-operated calcium influx, involving these molecules, has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • STIM1-mediated calcium entry is required for thrombin-induced disassembly of VE-cadherin adherens junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • have been difficult because of the complex, highly compartmentalized morphology of the Drosophila microvillar region containing the phototransduction signaling molecules and the inability to pharmacologically probe this region (our unpublished observations). (jneurosci.org)
  • biochemical
  • Other biochemical roles of calcium include regulating enzyme activity, permeability of ion channels, activity of ion pumps, and components of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • According to Hebb, these two cells are strengthened because their signaling occurs together in space and/or time, also known as coincident activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • The principal activator of these channels is Ca2+ itself and this process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is central to the mechanism of Ca2+ signalling. (genome.jp)
  • conductance
  • LTS is a large depolarization due to an increase in Ca2+ conductance, so LTS is mediated by calcium (Ca2+) conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • SK channels (Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) are a subfamily of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. (wikipedia.org)