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  • aluminium
  • While calcium is a poorer conductor of electricity than copper or aluminium by volume, it is a better conductor than both of them by mass due to its very low density. (wikipedia.org)
  • salts
  • Hypothetical univalent salts of calcium would be stable with respect to their elements, but not to disproportionation to the divalent salts and calcium metal, because the enthalpy of formation of MX2 is much higher than those of the hypothetical MX. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Alizarin or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (also known as Mordant Red 11 and Turkey Red) is an organic compound with formula C 14H 8O 4 that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cement
  • Calcium compounds on the other hand are very widely used in many industries: for example, they are used in foods and pharmaceuticals for calcium supplementation, in the paper industry as bleaches, in cement, in the manufacture of soaps, and as electrical insulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • If beryllium did form compounds with an ionization state of +2, it would polarize electron clouds that are near it very strongly and would cause extensive orbital overlap, since beryllium has a high charge density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the other elements placed in group 2 of the periodic table, calcium has two valence electrons in the outermost s-orbital, which are very easily lost in chemical reactions to form a dipositive ion with the stable electron configuration of a noble gas, in this case argon. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantities
  • While the pure metal does not have many applications due to its high reactivity, it is often used as an alloying component in small quantities in steelmaking, and calcium-lead alloys are sometimes used in automotive batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Extracellular calcium is also important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • There were also calcium traces found in the gut, but this may have been fragments of shell attached to its food rather than the animal`s organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects
  • The effects of calcium on human cells are specific, meaning that different types of cells respond in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Characteristic concentrations of calcium in model organisms are: in E. coli 3mM (bound), 100nM (free), in budding yeast 2mM (bound), in mammalian cell 10-100nM (free) and in blood plasma 2mM. (wikipedia.org)
  • quickly
  • In bulk, calcium is less reactive: it quickly forms a hydration coating in moist air, but below 30% relative humidity it may be stored indefinitely at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • This is evidenced by human plasma calcium, which is one of the most closely regulated physiological variables in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • This gradient is maintained through various plasma membrane calcium pumps that utilize ATP for energy, as well as a sizable storage within intracellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) obtains energy to pump calcium out of the cell by hydrolysing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The way to overcome this is through the process of bone resorption, in which calcium is liberated into the bloodstream through the action of bone osteoclasts. (wikipedia.org)