• cancer
  • CA19-9 is commonly used as a tumour marker for some types of cancer of the pancreas. (cancer.ca)
  • If CA19-9 levels have been higher than normal, a decrease in CA19-9 or a return to normal values may mean that the cancer is responding well to treatment. (cancer.ca)
  • In people with pancreatic masses, CA 19-9 can be useful in distinguishing between cancer and other diseases of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA 19-9 can be elevated in many types of gastrointestinal cancer, such as colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • CA-125 is the most frequently used biomarker for ovarian cancer detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical societies including American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend against women with average risk of ovarian cancer having routine CA-125 screening or other screening for this cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 90% of women with advanced ovarian cancer have elevated levels of CA-125 in their blood serum, making CA-125 a useful tool for detecting ovarian cancer after the onset of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monitoring CA-125 blood serum levels is also useful for determining how ovarian cancer is responding to treatment (with the duration of disease-free survival correlating with the rate of fall of CA-125) and for predicting a patient's prognosis after treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, an increase in CA-125 levels within individuals in a remission is a strong predictor of the recurrence of ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review commissioned by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that "Prostate-specific antigen-based screening results in small or no reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality and is associated with harms related to subsequent evaluation and treatments, some of which may be unnecessary," or more simply, "[t]he potential benefit does not outweigh the expected harms" in patients not already diagnosed or being treated for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binds
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antigen binds the highly variable immunoreceptor products (B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor) once these have been generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • It has been found by immunohistochemical staining that antigens normally found in gastric and/or intestinal epithelial cells are expressed in most differentiated duct cell carcinomas of the pancreas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • gene
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The blood levels of this antigen may also be at a higher than normal level in healthy people and in people with non-cancerous conditions such as pancreatitis or bile duct obstruction. (cancer.ca)
  • This is because the persistence of high levels of CA-125 during therapy is associated with poor survival rates in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Indeed, a rising CA-125 level may precede clinical evidence of disease relapse by an interval of 3 to 6 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The T cell/T lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell), of the adaptive immune system, selectively recognize the antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • A higher than normal level of CA19-9 can be found in healthy people and can also be found in people with non-cancerous and cancerous conditions. (cancer.ca)
  • The immune system usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus and is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body under distressed conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cannot
  • In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen cannot elicit the immune response without the help of an immunologic adjuvant. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen presenting cells present antigens in the form of peptides on histocompatibility molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the antigen and the type of the histocompatibility molecule, different types of T cells will be activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • CA19-9 is also found in healthy adults in small amounts in the pancreas, liver, gallbladder and lungs. (cancer.ca)
  • risk
  • This could be the reason for a documented 9-fold reduced risk of HIV transmission to infants during childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • healthy
  • Estimated reference limits for plasma CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were approximately the same as for healthy populations. (bibsys.no)