• polymerase chain re
  • Detectable by polymerase chain reaction, STSs are useful for localizing and orienting the mapping and sequence data reported from many different laboratories and serve as landmarks on the developing physical map of the human genome. (biology-online.org)
  • With amplification of DNA sequences via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) now commonplace, one will typically conduct reverse transcription as an initial step, followed by PCR to obtain an exact sequence of cDNA for intra-cellular expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • CpG dinucleotides have long been observed to occur with a much lower frequency in the sequence of vertebrate genomes than would be expected due to random chance. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Genotype is the term applied to specific changes in DNA sequence found in a mutant, while phenotype refers to all biological consequences from the presence of the mutation in question. (nybg.org)
  • species
  • Like RFLP loci, STS loci can be analyzed as co-dominance genetic markers and can in theory, be studied in member of the species or closely related species, provided that the DNA sequence is conserved at the PCR primer sites. (biology-online.org)
  • enzyme
  • Although there are several methods for doing so, cDNA is most often synthesized from mature (fully spliced) mRNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • The term cDNA is also used, typically in a bioinformatics context, to refer to an mRNA transcript's sequence, expressed as DNA bases (GCAT) rather than RNA bases (GCAU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • When FEN1 is over-expressed (this occurs when its promoter is hypomethylated) the highly inaccurate MMEJ pathway may be favored, causing a higher rate of mutation and increased risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • When FEN1, Ligase III, MRE11, NBS1, PARP1 or XRCC1 are over-expressed (this occurs with FEN1 when its promoter is hypomethylated) the highly inaccurate MMEJ pathway may be favored, causing a higher rate of mutation and increased risk of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in cancer cells, CpG islands preceding tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated, while CpG methylation of oncogene promoter regions and parasitic repeat sequences is often decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • Approximately 1,600 clusters (13% of the total) lack corresponding GLEAN models, despite high matches to the genome, suggesting that a considerable number of transcribed sequences were missed by the gene prediction programs or were removed by GLEAN. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • microRNAs
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that pair with sequences in messenger RNAs to direct post-transcriptional repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquitously
  • Though all VDAC isoforms are ubiquitously expressed, VDAC2 is majorly found in the sperm outer dense fiber (ODF), where it is hypothesized to promote proper assembly and maintenance of sperm flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • expression
  • K. Kato developed a highly sensitive method named Adapter-tagged Competitive PCR and applied it to gene expression profiling of mouse postnatal cerebellar development. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Once amplified, the sequence can be cut at each end with nucleases and inserted into one of many small circular DNA sequences known as expression vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Project
  • M. Maeda and her collaborators carried out cDNA project of the slime mold D. discoideum. (nii.ac.jp)
  • made
  • The cDNA copy is then made though reverse transcription of the viral RNA, a process facilitated by the chaperone CypA and a viral capsid associated reverse transcriptase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resources
  • Additionally, among the 343 unigenes sequences, 22 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also identified contributing to the study of A. canescens resources. (mdpi.com)
  • term
  • It has the capacity to store many tens of thousands of frozen samples in liquid-nitrogen-cooled vats for the long-term preservation of samples for DNA sequencing. (nybg.org)
  • single
  • CpG should not be confused with GpC , the latter meaning that a guanine is followed by a cytosine in the 5' → 3' direction of a single-stranded sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • ends
  • As reviewed by McVey and Lee, the foremost distinguishing property of MMEJ is the use of 5-25 base pair (bp) microhomologous sequences during the alignment of broken ends before joining, thereby resulting in deletions flanking the original break. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • PARP1 is over-expressed in tyrosine kinase-activated leukemias, in neuroblastoma, in testicular and other germ cell tumors, and in Ewing's sarcoma, XRCC1 is over-expressed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and at an even higher level in metastatic lymph nodes of NSCLC. (wikipedia.org)