• thoracic
  • The thoracic descending aorta gives rise to the intercostal and subcostal arteries, as well as to the superior and inferior left bronchial arteries and variable branches to the esophagus, mediastinum, and pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper parts of the esophagus and the upper esophageal sphincter receive blood from the inferior thyroid artery, the parts of the esophagus in the thorax from the bronchial arteries and branches directly from the thoracic aorta, and the lower parts of the esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter receive blood from the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The left vagus further gives off thoracic cardiac branches, breaks up into the pulmonary plexus, continues into the esophageal plexus, and enters the abdomen as the anterior vagal trunk in the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharyngeal nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Superior cervical cardiac branches of vagus nerve Inferior cervical cardiac branch Recurrent laryngeal nerve Thoracic cardiac branches Branches to the pulmonary plexus Branches to the esophageal plexus Anterior vagal trunk Posterior vagal trunk Hering-Breuer reflex in alveoli The vagus runs parallel to the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein inside the carotid sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage
  • In the main bronchi, hyaline cartilage forms an incomplete ring, giving a "D"-shaped appearance, while in the smaller bronchi, hyaline cartilage is present in irregularly arranged plates and islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cartilage and mucous membrane of the primary bronchi are similar to those in the trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last cartilage is thick and broad in the middle, due to its lower border being prolonged into a triangular hook-shaped (uncinate) process, which curves downward and backward between the two bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubes
  • In chronic bronchitis, the bronchi -the major breathing tubes - are inflamed and clogged with thick secretions. (nytimes.com)
  • cardiac
  • The right vagus then crosses anterior to the right subclavian artery, runs posterior to the superior vena cava, descends posterior to the right main bronchus, and contributes to cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • recurrent
  • The left vagus nerve, which passes anterior to the aortic arch, gives off a major branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which loops under the aortic arch just lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucus
  • The epithelium in the main bronchi contains goblet cells, which are glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cells that produce mucins, the main component of mucus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main symptom is a cough , which may bring up yellow-grey mucus (phlegm). (nhsinform.scot)
  • The walls of the bronchi produce mucus to trap dust and other particles that could otherwise cause irritation. (nhsinform.scot)
  • Most cases of acute bronchitis develop when an infection causes the bronchi to become irritated and inflamed, which causes them to produce more mucus than usual. (nhsinform.scot)
  • auricular
  • Stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve supplying the ear may also elicit a cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also has some afferent fibers that innervate the inner (canal) portion of the outer ear (via the auricular branch, also known as Alderman's nerve) and part of the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • diaphragm
  • Its lowest pair of branches are the superior phrenic arteries, which supply the diaphragm, and the subcostal arteries for the twelfth rib. (wikipedia.org)
  • superior
  • When triggered, impulses travel via the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which stems from the vagus nerve (CN X), to the medulla of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] This reflex may also be impaired by damage to the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which relays the afferent branch of the reflex arc. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • In 50% of all cases the primary tumor is of the gastrointestinal tract, other common sites include the breast, ovaries, bronchus and kidney. (wikipedia.org)