• spinal cord
  • Pre-pro U-II in both humans and rats are primarily expressed in the motorneurons of the brainstem and spinal cord although it is also found in small amounts in other parts of the brain as well including the frontal lobe and the medulla oblongata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urotensin II receptors are also found in the cholinergic neurons of the spinal cord indicating some type of motor function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal muscles are directly controlled by motor neurons located in the spinal cord or, in a few cases, the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subparabrachialnucleus and lateral crescent send efferents to the nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral medulla, and spinal cord, where they target many respiratory and autonomic cell groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reticular formation consists of more than 100 small neural networks, with varied functions including the following: Somatic motor control - Some motor neurons send their axons to the reticular formation nuclei, giving rise to the reticulospinal tracts of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • population of neurons
  • Given our increasing knowledge of the plasticity of neurons, it may also be possible that within a single population of neurons, one type of activity may be associated with conscious states and another with unconscious ones. (bio.net)
  • For example, a population of neurons in the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus that contain the neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) appears to be critical for relaying information about hypoxia or hypercapnia (e.g., if one is being suffocated during sleep, such as by sleep apnea) to forebrain sites to wake up the brain, and prevent asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • A released neurotransmitter is typically available in the synaptic cleft for a short time before it is metabolized by enzymes, pulled back into the presynaptic neuron through reuptake , or bound to a postsynaptic receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The released neurotransmitter may then move across the synapse to be detected by and bind with receptors in the postsynaptic neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, given advances in pharmacology, genetics, and chemical neuroanatomy, the term "neurotransmitter" can be applied to chemicals that: Carry messages between neurons via influence on the postsynaptic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The projections from the locus coeruleus consist of neurons that utilize norepinephrine as their primary neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parafacial zone promotes slow-wave sleep by inhibiting the glutamatergic parabrachial nucleus, a component of the ascending reticular activating system that mediates wakefulness and arousal, via the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA onto those neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • system of neurons
  • In recent years, the cholinergic system of neurons has been a main focus of research in aging and neural degradation, specifically as it relates to Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitatory
  • Binding of neurotransmitters may influence the postsynaptic neuron in either an inhibitory or excitatory way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The norepinephrine from the LC has an excitatory effect on most of the brain, mediating arousal and priming the brain's neurons to be activated by stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of excitatory adenosine A2A receptor-expressing indirect pathway neurons in the core region of the NAc strongly induces slow-wave sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recall that excitatory postsynaptic potentials caused by glutamatergic inputs at the dendrites of the spiny neurons only cause an action potential when the depolarization wave is strong enough upon entering the cell soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include interneurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y. The direct pathway of movement within the basal ganglia makes excitatory inputs coming from e.g. the cortex cause a net excitation of upper motor neurons in the motor areas of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • paraventricular
  • When injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) U-II causes an increase in the corticotropin releasing factor by activating the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus, two different areas of the brain which are known to control blood pressure were injected with U-II simultaneously they caused an increase in blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the urotensin II receptor is activated through an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons (PVN) which lead to increased plasma levels of adrencorticotropic hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • Most of the neurons are projected to the posterior cortex which is important with sensory information, and alertness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VTh projects to upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus). (wikipedia.org)
  • caudal
  • Pain and temperature information is also not represented within the principle nucleus, but rather in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, which is caudal to the pontine tegmentum in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial solitary nucleus, which carries taste information from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, is located caudal to the pontine tegmentum in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the neurons in more caudal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Côte, P.Y., and Parent, A., 1992, Calbindin D-28k and choline acetyltransferase are expressed by different neuronal populations in pedunculopontine nucleus but not in nucleus basalis in squirrel monkeys. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. (stanford.edu)
  • axons
  • In normal aging, there are beadlike swellings within the cholinergic fibers with enlarged or thickening of the axons, often in grape-like clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fiber swelling can be induced in a laboratory setting by damaging the cell body of the cholinergic neuron, which implies there is a slow cell and fiber degeneration of affected neurons and their projecting axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zona incerta neurons have dendrites with a wide span 0.8 mm and their axons give off collaterals that arborized locally within the zona incerta providing a means for lateral inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only difference between the axonal connectomes of the striosomes and the axons of those neurons in the matrix, is in the numbers of their branching axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellum
  • The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • excites
  • Moreover, whole-cell recordings from rat-brain slices show that UII selectively excites cholinergic PPT neurons via an inward current and membrane depolarization that were accompanied by membrane conductance decreases. (touro.edu)
  • agonist
  • In agreement with these anatomical data, recordings in slices showed that the cholinergic agonist carbachol depolarizes large-sized interpolaris cells and increases their excitability. (jneurosci.org)
  • Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • reticular formation
  • The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reticular formation is not anatomically well defined because it includes neurons located in diverse parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons of the reticular formation, particularly those of the ascending reticular activating system, play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • medulla
  • The two divisions of the cochlear nucleus, which process auditory input from the cochlea, lie on the border of the pons and the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • pontine
  • it was also reported that a midline brainstem lesion at the pontine level severely reduced the receptive field size of interpolaris cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The pontine tegmentum, or dorsal pons, is located within the brainstem, and is one of two parts of the pons, the other being the ventral pons or basilar part of the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the number of different nuclei located within the pontine tegmentum, it is a region associated with a range of functions including sensory and motor functions (due to the cranial nuclei and fiber tracts), control of stages of sleep and levels of arousal and vigilance (due to the ascending cholinergic systems), and some aspects of respiratory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pontine tegmentum contains nuclei of several cranial nerves and consequently has a role in several groups of sensory and motor processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus and the superior salivary nucleus of the facial nerve are located within the pontine tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellar
  • In the human brain, the expansion of the superior cerebellar peduncle expands the parabrachial nuclei, which form a thin strip of grey matter over most of the peduncle. (wikipedia.org)