• population of neurons
  • Given our increasing knowledge of the plasticity of neurons, it may also be possible that within a single population of neurons, one type of activity may be associated with conscious states and another with unconscious ones. (bio.net)
  • For example, a population of neurons in the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus that contain the neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) appears to be critical for relaying information about hypoxia or hypercapnia (e.g., if one is being suffocated during sleep, such as by sleep apnea) to forebrain sites to wake up the brain, and prevent asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • Most of the neurons are projected to the posterior cortex which is important with sensory information, and alertness. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in cat pons and cortex. (springer.com)
  • These include interneurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y. The direct pathway of movement within the basal ganglia makes excitatory inputs coming from e.g. the cortex cause a net excitation of upper motor neurons in the motor areas of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VTh projects to upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus). (wikipedia.org)
  • pontine
  • it was also reported that a midline brainstem lesion at the pontine level severely reduced the receptive field size of interpolaris cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1988. A syndrome of REM and non-REM sleep reduction and lateral gaze paresis after medial tegmental pontine stroke. (springer.com)
  • The pontine tegmentum, or dorsal pons, is located within the brainstem, and is one of two parts of the pons, the other being the ventral pons or basilar part of the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the number of different nuclei located within the pontine tegmentum, it is a region associated with a range of functions including sensory and motor functions (due to the cranial nuclei and fiber tracts), control of stages of sleep and levels of arousal and vigilance (due to the ascending cholinergic systems), and some aspects of respiratory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pontine tegmentum contains nuclei of several cranial nerves and consequently has a role in several groups of sensory and motor processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial motor nucleus and the superior salivary nucleus of the facial nerve are located within the pontine tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial solitary nucleus, which carries taste information from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, is located caudal to the pontine tegmentum in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • system of neurons
  • In recent years, the cholinergic system of neurons has been a main focus of research in aging and neural degradation, specifically as it relates to Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitatory
  • Binding of neurotransmitters may influence the postsynaptic neuron in either an inhibitory or excitatory way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The norepinephrine from the LC has an excitatory effect on most of the brain, mediating arousal and priming the brain's neurons to be activated by stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of excitatory adenosine A2A receptor-expressing indirect pathway neurons in the core region of the NAc strongly induces slow-wave sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recall that excitatory postsynaptic potentials caused by glutamatergic inputs at the dendrites of the spiny neurons only cause an action potential when the depolarization wave is strong enough upon entering the cell soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • paraventricular
  • When injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) U-II causes an increase in the corticotropin releasing factor by activating the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus, two different areas of the brain which are known to control blood pressure were injected with U-II simultaneously they caused an increase in blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the urotensin II receptor is activated through an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons (PVN) which lead to increased plasma levels of adrencorticotropic hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • caudal
  • The modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the neurons in more caudal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • wakefulness
  • These neurons have high activation during wakefulness and during REM sleep and a low activation during NREM sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons are critically involved in a variety of behaviors that rely on heightened arousal, but whether they directly and causally control the generation and maintenance of wakefulness is unknown. (stanford.edu)
  • We used chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations together with polysomnographic recordings to demonstrate that VTA dopaminergic neurons are necessary for arousal and that their inhibition suppresses wakefulness, even in the face of ethologically relevant salient stimuli. (stanford.edu)
  • neuronal
  • Interestingly, we found that Hcrt neuronal activity and Hcrt-mediated stress responses were inhibited by the satiety hormone leptin, which acts, in part, through a network of leptin-sensitive neurons in the LHA. (stanford.edu)
  • axons
  • In normal aging, there are beadlike swellings within the cholinergic fibers with enlarged or thickening of the axons, often in grape-like clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fiber swelling can be induced in a laboratory setting by damaging the cell body of the cholinergic neuron, which implies there is a slow cell and fiber degeneration of affected neurons and their projecting axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zona incerta neurons have dendrites with a wide span 0.8 mm and their axons give off collaterals that arborized locally within the zona incerta providing a means for lateral inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only difference between the axonal connectomes of the striosomes and the axons of those neurons in the matrix, is in the numbers of their branching axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • these neurons express D1-type dopamine receptors, adenosine A1 receptors, dynorphin peptides, and substance P peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • these neurons express D2-type dopamine receptors, adenosine A2A receptors (A2A), DRD2-A2A heterotetramers, and enkephalin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both types express glutamate receptors (NMDAR and AMPAR), cholinergic receptors (M1 and M4) and CB1 receptors are expressed on the somatodendritic area of both MSN types. (wikipedia.org)
  • excites
  • Moreover, whole-cell recordings from rat-brain slices show that UII selectively excites cholinergic PPT neurons via an inward current and membrane depolarization that were accompanied by membrane conductance decreases. (touro.edu)
  • agonist
  • In agreement with these anatomical data, recordings in slices showed that the cholinergic agonist carbachol depolarizes large-sized interpolaris cells and increases their excitability. (jneurosci.org)
  • striatal
  • The disease has the characteristics of a progressive disorder in most people, with a common pattern of pathological change occurring in the nervous system that extends beyond the classical striatal degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • reticular formation
  • The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reticular formation is not anatomically well defined because it includes neurons located in diverse parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons of the reticular formation, particularly those of the ascending reticular activating system, play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness. (wikipedia.org)