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  • basal ganglia
  • Anatomical studies have revealed dense connections between the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) and the basal ganglia (Figure 1). (springer.com)
  • Jackson, A., and Crossman, A.R., 1983, Nucleus tegmenti pedunculopontinus: efferent connections with special reference to the basal ganglia, studied in the rat by anterograde and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. (springer.com)
  • Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the basal ganglia, there are several complex circuits of neuronal loops all of which include medium spiny neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include interneurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y. The direct pathway of movement within the basal ganglia makes excitatory inputs coming from e.g. the cortex cause a net excitation of upper motor neurons in the motor areas of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic
  • These projections originate from various cerebellar nuclei and are gabaergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parafacial zone (PZ) is a brain structure located within the medulla oblongata which contains GABAergic neurons and is involved in slow-wave sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, in the present study we demonstrated that all polygraphic and neurobehavioral manifestation of SWS, including SWA, can be initiated in behaving animals by the selective activation of a delimited node of GABAergic medullary neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, the medullary parafacial zone (PZ) adjacent to the facial nerve was identified as a sleep-promoting center on the basis of anatomical, electrophysiological and chemo- and optogenetic studies.23, 24 GABAergic PZ neurons inhibit glutamatergic parabrachial (PB) neurons that project to the BF,25 thereby promoting NREM sleep at the expense of wakefulness and REM sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two populations of these projection neurons, MSN1 and MSN2, both of which are inhibitory GABAergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also various groups of GABAergic interneurons and a single group of cholinergic interneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GPe and VP send a GABAergic projection to the subthalamic nucleus, which then sends glutamatergic projections to the GPi and SNr. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synaptic connections between a particular GABAergic interneuron, the parvalbumin expressing fast-spiking interneuron, and spiny neurons are close to the spiny neurons' soma, or cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, other types of GABAergic interneurons make connections with the spiny neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • population of neurons
  • Given our increasing knowledge of the plasticity of neurons, it may also be possible that within a single population of neurons, one type of activity may be associated with conscious states and another with unconscious ones. (bio.net)
  • system of neurons
  • In recent years, the cholinergic system of neurons has been a main focus of research in aging and neural degradation, specifically as it relates to Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitatory
  • Binding of neurotransmitters may influence the postsynaptic neuron in either an inhibitory or excitatory way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The norepinephrine from the LC has an excitatory effect on most of the brain, mediating arousal and priming the brain's neurons to be activated by stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of excitatory adenosine A2A receptor-expressing indirect pathway neurons in the core region of the NAc strongly induces slow-wave sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recall that excitatory postsynaptic potentials caused by glutamatergic inputs at the dendrites of the spiny neurons only cause an action potential when the depolarization wave is strong enough upon entering the cell soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • paraventricular
  • When injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) U-II causes an increase in the corticotropin releasing factor by activating the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus, two different areas of the brain which are known to control blood pressure were injected with U-II simultaneously they caused an increase in blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the urotensin II receptor is activated through an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of urotensin II it causes an increase of corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular neurons (PVN) which lead to increased plasma levels of adrencorticotropic hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • caudal
  • Pain and temperature information is also not represented within the principle nucleus, but rather in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, which is caudal to the pontine tegmentum in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facial solitary nucleus, which carries taste information from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, is located caudal to the pontine tegmentum in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the neurons in more caudal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • basalis
  • Berger-Sweeney J, Heckers S, Mesulam MM, Wiley RG, Lappi DA, Sharma M (1994) Differential effects on spatial navigation of immunotoxin-induced cholinergic lesions of the medial septal area and nucleus basalis magnocellularis. (springer.com)
  • carbachol
  • In agreement with these anatomical data, recordings in slices showed that the cholinergic agonist carbachol depolarizes large-sized interpolaris cells and increases their excitability. (jneurosci.org)
  • Local application of carbachol in vivo enhances responses to adjacent whiskers, whereas systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine produces an opposite effect. (jneurosci.org)
  • Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • axons
  • In normal aging, there are beadlike swellings within the cholinergic fibers with enlarged or thickening of the axons, often in grape-like clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fiber swelling can be induced in a laboratory setting by damaging the cell body of the cholinergic neuron, which implies there is a slow cell and fiber degeneration of affected neurons and their projecting axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zona incerta neurons have dendrites with a wide span 0.8 mm and their axons give off collaterals that arborized locally within the zona incerta providing a means for lateral inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only difference between the axonal connectomes of the striosomes and the axons of those neurons in the matrix, is in the numbers of their branching axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebellum
  • The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • excites
  • Moreover, whole-cell recordings from rat-brain slices show that UII selectively excites cholinergic PPT neurons via an inward current and membrane depolarization that were accompanied by membrane conductance decreases. (touro.edu)
  • pons
  • These pathways arise from cholinergic cell groups in the pons called LDT, PPT and nucleus reticularis pontis. (wordpress.com)
  • Thus, it is also known as the nucleus pigmentosus pontis, meaning "heavily pigmented nucleus of the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pontine tegmentum, or dorsal pons, is located within the brainstem, and is one of two parts of the pons, the other being the ventral pons or basilar part of the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superior vestibular nucleus, one of four vestibular nuclei, is located within the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two divisions of the cochlear nucleus, which process auditory input from the cochlea, lie on the border of the pons and the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acetylcholinergic system has its neurons located in the pons and in the basal forebrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • preoptic
  • Populations of neurons in the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) fire rapidly during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent firing patterns that are the reciprocal of those observed in the arousal system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sleep onset is finally induced by sleep-promoting neurons, located in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). (wikipedia.org)
  • arousal
  • Neurons of the reticular formation, particularly those of the ascending reticular activating system, play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the number of different nuclei located within the pontine tegmentum, it is a region associated with a range of functions including sensory and motor functions (due to the cranial nuclei and fiber tracts), control of stages of sleep and levels of arousal and vigilance (due to the ascending cholinergic systems), and some aspects of respiratory control. (wikipedia.org)