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  • kidney
  • SCN is funding a total of 31 goal-directed projects from across Canada that are moving research from lab bench to bedside in areas such as brain injury, kidney disease and breast cancer. (medindia.net)
  • clinical
  • Current clinical evaluation of 4 of the AM grafted patients revealed sustained bilateral amelioration of their PD signs, most notably of rgidity, postural imbalance and gait disturbances, resulting in a substantial improvement in their quality of life. (hindawi.com)
  • In agreement with the satisfactory clinical evaluation of these 4 patients, their neuropsychological and electrophysiological improvements, initially registered 3 months after surgery, have been maintained for 3 years. (hindawi.com)
  • He added, "When the efficacy, mechanism and safety of cell transplantation therapy are established, we will be able to apply it to clinical situations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Molecular imaging and nuclear medicine are useful tools that allow the visualization of different kinds of neuronal functions to evaluate cell transplantation therapy in both experimental and clinical situations, said Kuroda. (innovations-report.com)
  • Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies using continuous intravenous infusion have demonstrated a reduction in these fluctuations, as have manipulations of oral dose and diet, suggesting that steady deiivery of L-dopa or dopamine to the brain is desirable for optimai and perhaps long-term clinical response [13-2 11. (docme.ru)
  • Beginning with the PROWESS clinical trial of 2001, it was recognised that many of the symptoms of sepsis may be ameliorated by infusion of APC, and mortality rates of septic patients may be significantly decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the earlier attempts at hand transplantation, the Louisville group had performed extensive basic science research and feasibility studies for many years prior to their first clinical procedure (for example, Shirbacheh et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • All eligible patients in whom cancer progresses and for whom no standard of care treatment options are available should be enrolled in a clinical trial[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • trials
  • This program supports phase I/II trials with the potential to be economically viable for health care systems and show a benefit to patients. (medindia.net)
  • Funded trials will focus on a spectrum of health issues including treating fatal illnesses such as septic shock, evaluating a stem cell therapy for diabetes, and expanding stem cells from cord blood for efficacious and cost effective transplantation. (medindia.net)
  • The risks associated with stem cell transplantation trials are difficult to assess, but have not become overtly apparent throughout preclinical investigations. (mja.com.au)
  • This procedure is called therapeutic hypothermia, and it has been shown by a number of large, high-quality randomised trials to significantly improve survival and reduce brain damage after birth asphyxia in newborn infants, almost doubling the chance of normal survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Studies have shown that cells taken from adult human bone marrow may possibly be converted into neural cells-cells with the ability to convert to any type of cell found in the body-that could then be transplanted into the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Few subjects in biomedical science have captured the imagination of both the scientific community and the public as has the use of stem cells for the repair of damaged tissues. (jci.org)
  • Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, a renewable resource of neural stem cells was discovered in the adult human brain. (mja.com.au)
  • These studies demonstrate that the adult human brain contains a renewable source of neural stem cells which can be successfully isolated through various surgical techniques. (mja.com.au)
  • A new kind of stem cell that can form new brain cells have been discovered by researchers from Lund University leading to hopes for people with serious brain injuries. (medindia.net)
  • Analysing brain tissue from biopsies, the researchers for the first time found stem cells locatedaround small blood vessels in the brain. (medindia.net)
  • The pluripotency of the human amniotic epithelial cells makes them useful in treating and fighting diseases and disorders of the nervous system as well as other tissues of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes the possibility of rejection of the cells by the recipient tissue less likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditional tissue transplants, where the donor and recipient have to be in complete sync as far as blood type and overall compatibility and even still can show tissue rejection, amniotic epithelial cells can be used and show a higher likelihood of tissue acceptance. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, several billion cells are required to use for transplantation in order to treat and fight diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the cells must be expanded in a lab to have enough cells for transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, Sally Temple described multipotent, self-renewing progenitor and stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the mouse brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, Brent A. Reynolds and Samuel Weiss were the first to isolate neural progenitor and stem cells from the adult striatal tissue, including the SVZ - one of the neurogenic areas - of adult mice brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell isolation is the process of separating individual living cells from a solid block of tissue or cell suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • While some types of cell naturally exist in a separated form, for example blood cells, other cell types that are found in solid tissue requiring specific techniques to separate into individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a tissue specimen has been obtained, it must be surrounded or perfused by a solution at an appropriate temperature containing the salts and nutrients required to keep the cells alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of cells from some tissues may be improved by oxygenating the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • When isolation cells from brain tissue, other enzymes that break down DNA (DNAases) may be required. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the enzymes have been removed from the tissue by perfusing it with a second solution that does not contain enzymes, cells can be mechanically separated or dissociated. (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple technique for dissociating cells involves cutting the tissue into small chunk before agitating the chunks in a solution using a pipette. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus infection provokes an inflammatory response of paneth cells in the intestine, helping to spread the virus by causing tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have the potential to grow into many different types of tissues and their fate is dependent on many factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is an image showing some of the chemical factors that can lead stem cells to differentiate into various neural tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-type specific genome assays Organoids can be used to study the crucial early stages of brain development, test drugs and, because they can be made from living cells, study individual patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • P22phox can be associated with NOX1, NOX3 and NOX4 in several cells and tissues, but the level of ROS production is far lower than those produced in phagocytes by cytb. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells, carried to the area by the newly returning blood, release a host of inflammatory factors such as interleukins as well as free radicals in response to tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Implementing the collaborative care model for patients with dementia and depression, which often occur together, reduces patients' behavioral and psychological symptoms, diminishes the burden on patients' informal caregivers and enhances the quality of care delivered to the patient. (medindia.net)
  • When it does occur in humans, a wide range of sites may become involved, including the lung, heart, brain, the superficial cutaneous or subcutaneous areas, and other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another school of thought focuses on hypothermia's ability to prevent the injuries that occur after circulation returns to the brain, or what is termed reperfusion injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • A similar cell type has been identified in several other organs where it can promote regeneration of muscle, bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. (medindia.net)
  • In cases of trauma, for example in compound skull fractures where fragments of bone are pushed into the substance of the brain, the cause of the abscess is obvious. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • When medications are not enough to control symptoms, surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation can relieve the associated movement disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this occurs, PD patients change rapidly from stages with good response to medication and few symptoms ("on" state) to phases with no response to medication and important motor symptoms ("off" state). (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms are caused by a combination of increased intracranial pressure due to a space-occupying lesion (headache, vomiting, confusion, coma), infection (fever, fatigue etc.) and focal neurologic brain tissue damage (hemiparesis, aphasia etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other symptoms and findings depend largely on the specific location of the abscess in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms that are most frequently associated with brain abscess in patients with AIDS are poliovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, though in infection with the latter organism, symptoms of meningitis generally predominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting symptoms differ based on the affected area of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the initial stroke, other symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • The next step is to try to control and enhance stem cell self-healing properties with the aimof carrying out therapies targeted to a specific area of the brain. (medindia.net)
  • kidneys
  • In an opposite twist, Ganogen Research Institute CEO Eugene Gu is studying how to transplant human fetal hearts and kidneys into animals for future transplantation into human patients to address the shortage of donor organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • SNM members have introduced-and continue to explore-biological and technological innovations in medicine that noninvasively investigate the molecular basis of diseases, benefiting countless generations of patients. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spingiform encephalopathies, are a group of degenerative brain disease capable of transmission between individuals or by inoculation or ingestion of disesaes brain or other tissues. (studentreader.com)
  • This complexity has made studying the brain and understanding how it works a difficult task in neuroscience, especially when it comes to neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with many different cardiovascular diseases have a higher likelihood of experiencing a blood clot or loss of blood flow in border-zone regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • rejection
  • A hand transplant was performed in Ecuador in 1964, but the patient suffered from transplant rejection after only two weeks due to the primitive nature of the immune-suppressing medications at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, xenotransplantion is often an extremely dangerous type of transplant because of the increased risk of non-compatibility, rejection, and disease carried in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell
  • As a result, stem cell technology is imbued in an ethical conflict between destructive human embyro research on the one hand, and the magnitude of the potential benefits to patients, on the other. (mja.com.au)
  • Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (medindia.net)
  • Sometimes an autograft is done to remove the tissue and then treat it or the person before returning it (examples include stem cell autograft and storing blood in advance of surgery). (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • Tissue may be recovered from donors who die of circulatory death, as well as of brain death - up to 24 hours past the cessation of heartbeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • stroke
  • There are several conditions that can predispose someone to watershed stroke by increasing the likelihood that insufficient blood supply will be able to reach the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early diagnosis and timely medical intervention can drastically reduce the severity of a stroke, limit damage to the brain, improve the chances of a full recovery and reduce recovery times massively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reperfusion injury plays a part in the brain's ischemic cascade, which is involved in stroke and brain trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The "donor" hand usually comes from a brain-dead donor and is transplanted to a recipient who has lost one or both hands/arms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subset of allografts in which organs or tissues are transplanted from a donor to a genetically identical recipient (such as an identical twin). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • However, HNSCs have been isolated from various regions of the embryonic, 3 - 5 fetal 6 - 8 and adult human brain, including the hippocampus, the ventricular/ependymal zone, 9 - 12 and, more recently, from the cortex and the amygdala. (mja.com.au)
  • Hand transplantation is a surgical procedure to transplant a hand from one human to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surplus human tissue can sometimes be obtained at the time of planned surgery, for example specimens of right atrial appendage are often excised and discarded during coronary artery bypass surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human brain is an extremely complex system of heterogeneous tissues and consists of an extremely diverse array of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, major breakthroughs in how the brain works have resulted from injury or disorder in human brain function, leading to understanding of how regions of the brain work. (wikipedia.org)
  • An in vitro human brain model would allow for the next wave in understanding of the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • This may be performed by simply submerging the tissue in the solution, or may involve more complex arrangements such as Langendorff perfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult brain
  • Neurons are generated in large numbers by NSCs during a specific period of embryonic development through the process of neurogenesis, and continue to be generated in adult life in restricted regions of the adult brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that neurogenesis in the adult brain originates from NSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin and identity of NSCs in the adult brain remain to be defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • hospitals
  • An average 60 patients per day are admitted for trauma or elective treatment, making it one of the busiest general Hospitals in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beaumont Hospital is one of two hospitals (the other being Cork University Hospital) which offers neuro-oncology treatment to patients throughout the Republic of Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Several mechanisms that explain the influence of ammonia on the central nervous system (CNS) have been proposed such as: specific interactions between brain endothelium and astrocytes, modification of transport across the blood-brain barrier, changes in energy metabolism, a direct neurotoxic effect on astrocytes, and neuronal membranes, reducing the synthesis of free glutamate with glutamatergic neurotransmission disorder [ 18 - 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • years
  • While regular CJD is a spontaneous mutation of the normal cellular gene that affects old people, nvCJD is observed in patients of all ages and in fact has a median age of death of 27.5 years. (studentreader.com)
  • A significant age acceleration effect could be detected in brain (7.4 years) and blood (5.2 years) tissue due to HIV-1 infection with the help of a biomarker of aging, which is known as epigenetic clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • The staff then helps both the patient and family caregivers develop a personal treatment plan that typically includes recognizing potentially harmful medications, prescribing new medications, initiating brain and physical exercise regimens, training in problem solving, and working on reducing stress to improve daily life. (medindia.net)
  • and encourages use of medications that are not harmful to older brains. (medindia.net)
  • If patients have periods of immobility alternating with periods of severely impaired mobility, they may need changes in their medication schedule or new, additional medications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patients enrolled in the study will, if possible, stop taking all antiparkinson medications except levodopa (Sinemet) for one month before the study begins and through its duration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Those patients who are dedicated to taking the medications and performing the physical therapy following a hand transplant have had remarkable success in regaining function of the new hands/arms. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The first evidence that neurogenesis occurs in certain regions of the adult mammalian brain came from [3H]-thymidine labeling studies conducted by Altman and Das in 1965 which showed postnatal hippocampal neurogensis in young rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • In the initial stages, perfusing the tissue with a solution that does not contain calcium is useful particularly when isolating cardiac myocytes, as the absence of calcium causes separation of the intercalated disks. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Study shows that a new patient and caregiver centered model of innovative, coordinated brain care for older adults improves health outcomes and quality of care for those with cognitive impairment. (medindia.net)
  • A new study from the Regenstrief Institute, Eskenazi Health and Indiana University Center for Aging Research implementation scientists who developed the Healthy Aging Brain Center care model shows that such care also produces impressive cost savings. (medindia.net)
  • Three-quarters of the non-Healthy Aging Brain Center study participants were female. (medindia.net)
  • For this study, patients will stop taking their usual oral levodopa medicine and instead will have levodopa infused through a vein for up to 12 hours. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All participants will receive placebo at some time during the study, and some patients will receive only placebo throughout the entire 4 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the end of each week, patients will be readmitted to the hospital and receive the previous week's dose of riluzole or placebo in combination with a levodopa infusion at the rate determined in the dose-finding phase of the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • fate
  • Clonal lineage tracing Clonal lineage tracing is part of fate mapping, where the lineage of differentiated tissues is traced to the pluripotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment
  • On treatment days, patients will have a brief medical examination before receiving the drug and will then be monitored for side effects for about 6 to 8 hours after taking the drug. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Two phases are usually distinguished: an initial phase in which the individual with PD has already developed some disability for which he or she needs pharmacological treatment, and a second stage in which the patient develops motor complications related to levodopa usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Elderly patients are at increased risk for adverse effects because of reduced drug tolerance and should be assessed for postural hypotension, pulse irregularities, blepharospasm, and anxiety and confusion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the patient is instructed in their use and potential side effects so that the dosage can be adjusted to minimize the side effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • blood
  • The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. (hindawi.com)
  • Only 5-10% of L-DOPA crosses the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-exposure prophylaxis is recommended in anticipated cases of HIV exposure, such as if a nurse somehow has blood-to-blood contact with a patient in the course of work, or if someone without HIV requests the drugs immediately after having unprotected sex with a person who might have HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The German scholars compared the blood flow in distal arterial territories of the brain to the last field on a farm, which was the area with the least supply of water and therefore most vulnerable to any reduction in flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a medical context, the term "watershed" refers to those areas of the brain that receive dual blood supply from the branching ends of two large arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watershed strokes are caused by ischemia or a lack of blood flow to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reperfusion injury or reperfusion insult, sometimes called ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) or reoxygenation injury, is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to tissue (re- + perfusion) after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen (anoxia or hypoxia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another hypothesis would be that normally, tissues contain free radical scavengers to avoid damage by oxidizing species normally contained in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once blood flow is reestablished, oxygen species contained in the blood will damage the ischemic tissue because the function of the scavengers is decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Most patients report gradual onset of fatigue, or malaise, followed by evidence of a tremor in one or more extremities, typically a hand when it is at rest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • levodopa
  • The levodopa requirements of 2 of these patients and the anticholinergic therapy of another have been reduced. (hindawi.com)
  • For the first 1 to 3 days, patients will undergo a levodopa 'dose-finding' procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients will take three pills containing NS2330 or placebo (a look-alike pill with no active ingredient) 3 days a week for up to 5 weeks, in addition to their regular levodopa medication. (clinicaltrials.gov)