• midbrain
  • The inferior colliculus, is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial Nerve
  • Each of the regions has cranial nerve rootlets Throughout the brain stem there are centers related to cranial nerves that undertake functions as diverse as breathing, swallowing, chewing, eye movements, and setting the level of consciousness. (springer.com)
  • pontine gliomas
  • Children's National Medical Center, Washington DC: Comprehensive Protein Analysis (Proteomic Profiling) of Pediatric Brainstem Gliomas using Paraffin Embedded Tissues Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: Our hypothesis is that unravelling the genomic alterations of diffuse infiltrating pontine gliomas or DIPGs will lead to improved understanding of the biology of such tumours and improved therapeutic options. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Speech disorders , vestibular disturbance, abnormal consciousness , dysphagia , and respiratory disturbance are a few examples of possible outcomes of brainstem disorders. (britannica.com)
  • The new research is notable because it found the SIDS babies - regardless of whether they were in positions or sleep environments that might have contributed to asphyxiation - had similar abnormal circuits in the brain stem. (thestar.com)
  • In only 30% of cases is a MRI brain scan abnormal. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • The brainstem nuclei include: the superior olive the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL) the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) Fibers leaving these brainstem nuclei ascending to the inferior colliculus rejoin the lateral lemniscus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In that sense, this is not a 'lemniscus' in the true sense of the word (second order, decussated sensory axons), as there is third (and out of the lateral superior olive, fourth) order information coming out of some of these brainstem nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though small, this is an extremely important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • They reflect neuronal activity in the auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus, superior olive, and inferior colliculus of the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Recurrent focal brain stem gliomas may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy or a combination of these treatments. (cancer.ca)
  • Chemotherapy drugs used for recurrent focal brain stem gliomas include carboplatin (Paraplatin, Paraplatin AQ) and vincristine (Oncovin). (cancer.ca)
  • heartbeat
  • The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and many reflexes. (britannica.com)
  • functions
  • Brain stem death is when a person no longer has any brain stem functions, and has permanently lost the potential for consciousness and the capacity to breathe. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The brain stem is responsible for regulating most of the body's automatic functions that are essential for life. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The brain stem also relays information to and from the brain to the rest of the body, so it plays an important role in the brain's core functions, such as consciousness, awareness and movement. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The brainstem houses many of the control centres for vital body functions, such as swallowing, breathing , and vasomotor control. (britannica.com)
  • The brainstem also has nuclei important for sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. (britannica.com)
  • The brainstem controls and regulates vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure. (dictionary.com)
  • Superior
  • It is the main auditory tract in the brainstem that connects the superior olivary complex (SOC) with the inferior colliculus (IC). (wikipedia.org)
  • scan
  • In rare cases, a person may demonstrate some sense of response that can be detected using a brain scan, but not be able to interact with their surroundings. (www.nhs.uk)
  • syndrome
  • Researchers at a leading U.S. children's hospital have found new evidence linking sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) to underlying abnormalities in babies' brain stems. (thestar.com)
  • In 1995, after a review by a Working Group of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Conference of Medical Royal Colleges formally adopted the "more correct" term for the syndrome, "brainstem death"-championed by Pallis in a set of 1982 articles in the British Medical Journal -and advanced a new definition of human death as the basis for equating this syndrome with the death of the person. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Treatment of brain stem gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis may differ. (cancer.ca)
  • If treatment is needed, surgery is the main treatment used for focal or low-grade brain stem gliomas. (cancer.ca)
  • GOTHENBURG, Sweden -- The multiple sclerosis drug laquinimod, which crosses the blood-brain barrier, is safe for brain stem cells at concentrations relevant for treatment, according to a study presented here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Laquinimod is a monoclonal antibody in phase III trials for treatment of MS. Unlike other disease-modifying MS therapies, a portion of the drug, about 10%, crosses into the brain. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The concentration of laquinimod achieved in the human brain during treatment is unknown, she said, and extrapolation from mice is problematic, because of large interspecies differences in the rate of metabolism of the drug. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Part of laquinimod's benefit, he thinks, derives from action in the CNS, based on a difference in brain atrophy seen in treatment trials over a relatively short period of time. (medpagetoday.com)
  • unresponsive
  • These are: There should be no doubt that the patient's condition - deeply comatose, unresponsive and requiring artificial ventilation-is due to irreversible brain damage of known cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • They were drafted in response to a perceived need for guidance in the management of deeply comatose patients with severe brain damage who were being kept alive by mechanical ventilators but showing no signs of recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • A person is confirmed as being dead when their brain stem function is permanently lost. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The lack of oxygen, which occurred as a result of no blood flow, quickly led to the permanent loss of brain stem function. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Complete loss of brainstem function is regarded by some experts as equivalent to brain death . (britannica.com)
  • Other markers of stem cell function remain to be investigated, including ability to differentiate and migrate. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The brainstem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • P.P v. Health Service Executive was a 2014 case in the Irish High Court to rule on whether a pregnant woman (anonymised as "N.P.") who was brain dead ought to be kept on life support until the foetus was viable and could be delivered. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Confirming death is now more complex, because it's possible to keep the heart beating after the brain stem has permanently stopped functioning. (www.nhs.uk)
  • To save a person's family and friends from unnecessary suffering, once there's clear evidence that brain death has occurred, the person will be disconnected from the ventilator. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After brain death, it's not possible for someone to remain conscious. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Therefore, a number of tests are carried out to check that brain death has actually occurred, such as shining a torch into both eyes to see if they react to the light. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Read more about confirming brain death . (www.nhs.uk)
  • After brain death has occurred, it may be possible for the person's organs to be used in transplantations, which can often save the lives of others. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This concept of brainstem death is also accepted as grounds for pronouncing death for legal purposes in India and Trinidad & Tobago. (wikipedia.org)
  • thinks
  • Wolfgang Bruck, MD, Director of Neuropathology at Georg-August-University in Goettingen, Germany, thinks the ability of laquinimod to enter the brain is a potential plus for MS therapy, and that safety investigations such as these are useful for ruling out concerns. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Neuroscience is a wonderful branch of science on how our brain perceives the external world, how our brain thinks, how our brain responds to the outside of the world, and how during disease or aging the neuronal connections deteriorate. (coursera.org)
  • heart
  • Once the brain stem has permanently stopped functioning, there's no way of reversing it and the heart will eventually stop beating, even if a ventilator continues to be used. (www.nhs.uk)
  • That part of the brain controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep, so an impairment may leave these infants vulnerable. (thestar.com)
  • main
  • citation needed] Neuroimaging, such as MRI, is the main diagnostic tool for brain stem gliomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone-conduction auditory brainstem response (BCABR) are similar to air conduction auditory brainstem responses, with the main difference being that the signal is transmitted via bone-conduction instead of air. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • A person who is brain dead has no chance of recovery, because their body is unable to survive without artificial support. (www.nhs.uk)
  • study
  • In a study released Monday, the investigators found that infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly of SIDS, regardless of their sleep positions, had distinct differences in brain stem chemistry, lead investigator and neuropathologist Dr. Hannah Kinney of Boston Children's Hospital said in an interview. (thestar.com)
  • treat
  • But research at Lund University in Sweden provides hope that it may be possible in the future to develop stem cells from the brain into a new way to treat gliomas. (innovations-report.com)
  • Steroids such as Decadron may be required to treat swelling in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • movement
  • Chiarenza G, Papakestopoulos D, Cazzullo A, Giordana G, Alde G (1982) Movement related brain macropotentials during skilled performance task in children with learning disabilities. (springer.com)
  • middle
  • They often grow in the middle of the brain stem and are difficult to remove with surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • We estimate the concentration in the brain to be a few micromolar," Kelland said, near the middle of the log range tested. (medpagetoday.com)
  • surgery
  • Only about one thousand five hundred recipients have been implanted with an auditory brainstem implant, due to the nature of the surgery required to implant the device (as it requires brain surgery to implant the device). (wikipedia.org)