• Infarction
  • If the brain becomes damaged irreversibly and infarction occurs, the symptoms may be permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enriched environment (EE) housing significantly ameliorates neurological deficits induced by cortical brain ischemia without changing infarction size, suggesting that EE-related functional benefits are associated with neuronal plasticity events in the remaining tissue. (lu.se)
  • glutamate
  • Citicoline lowers increased glutamate concentrations and raises decreased ATP concentrations induced by ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • During brain ischemia, glutamate is released in excess from the presynaptic terminal, leading to the uncontrollable opening of the glutamate receptors, including the NMDA and AMPA receptors, which allows for an excessive influx of Ca2+ into the intracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxia
  • In the 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion model with 3-hour recirculation, we have identified 28 known ischemia-hypoxia response genes that are upregulated and 6 that are downregulated, together with 35 upregulated and 41 downregulated genes newly connected with ischemia. (pptaglobal.org)
  • The mechanism beyond REST induction in ischaemia, might be tightly linked to its oxygen-dependent nuclear translocation and repression of target genes in hypoxia (low oxygen) where REST fulfils the functions of a master regulator of gene repression in hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citicoline
  • Citicoline is a naturally occurring chemical found in the human brain. (empr.com)
  • Once these cross the blood-brain barrier it is reformed into citicoline by the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis, CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Rather than the conventional cell replacement mechanism, we advance alternative pathways of graft-mediated brain repair involving neurotrophic effects resulting from release of various growth factors that afford cell survival, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Optimal blood glucose concentrations in respective group were 10.3 and 6.3 mmol/L, as determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves.Cerebral ischemia triggers different signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which regulate fundamental cell functions. (openthesis.org)
  • gene
  • Whether EE-related gene transcription and/or translation reported in this thesis are linked with EE-induced functional benefits to brain ischemia, further studies need be conducted. (lu.se)
  • Gene expression: Perfusion gradients also determine differential patterns of gene expression in ischemia. (pptaglobal.org)
  • blindness
  • Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, weakness in one arm or leg, or weakness in one entire side of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Recombinant human thioredoxin-1 promotes neurogenesis and facilitates cognitive recovery following cerebral ischemia in mice. (curehunter.com)
  • Lapin followed up this research by demonstrating that quinolinic acid could induce convulsions when injected into mice brain ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury
  • Promoting neurogenesis via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway accounts for the neurorestorative effects of morroniside against cerebral ischemia injury. (curehunter.com)
  • Below, I will review our current understanding of I/R brain injury and how diabetes worsens outcome. (wayne.edu)
  • Such an injury is fatal to humans and usually fatal to most animals, since it deprives all other organs of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function, while the brain is deprived of oxygenated blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is usually seen in the terminal stages of acute head injury and may indicate imminent brain herniation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different patterns indicate a different location of the brain where the injury occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, the Na+/K+-ATPase pump maintains the transmembrane gradients of K+ and Na+ ions, but with anoxic brain injury, the supply of energy to drive this pump is lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • In addition to these cancers, defects in REST have also been attributed a role in Huntington Disease, neuroblastomas, and the effects of epileptic seizures and ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • I will discuss clinical outcomes, the major mechanisms, and especially focus on TA following brain I/R. The most current ideas on TA link it to intracellular stress responses and the formation of subcellular particles involved in mRNA metabolism such as stress granules and mRNA granules. (wayne.edu)
  • reduces
  • Another highly protective agent is human albumin, administered in doses of 1.25 to 2.5 g/kg-a therapy that reduces infarct volume in this ischemia model by 60% to 65%, markedly diminishes brain swelling, and has a therapeutic window extending to 4 hours. (pptaglobal.org)
  • clinically
  • At present, there are no clinically effective pharmacologic interventions to halt brain damage following I/R. The major Aim of this dissertation will be to investigate possible mechanisms involved in neuron death following brain I/R, which may potentially lead to the development of effective therapies. (wayne.edu)
  • Research
  • The report of global brain ischemia market by Market Research Future comprises of extensive primary research along with detail analysis of qualitative as well as quantitative aspects by various industry experts and key opinion leaders to gain a deeper insight of the market and industry performance. (marketprnews.com)
  • Molecular Brain Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Global ischemia is often the result of cardiac arrest, and if left untreated for too long, may result in severe brain damage, explains the Columbia University Medical Center. (reference.com)
  • Since the early 1990s, partnering with interventional cardiologists, he began to apply recently acquired cardiac technology to the brain circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global
  • Major driving factor for global brain ischemia market are increasing number of patient suffering from diabetes, obesity hypertension and other related diseases as well as increasing aging population. (marketprnews.com)
  • Treatments
  • Intense efforts are being undertaken to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms triggered after brain ischemia and to develop effective pharmacological treatments. (frontiersin.org)