• morphine
  • This study compares μ-opioid receptor desensitization and trafficking in brain slices taken from rats treated for 6-7 d with a range of doses of morphine (60, 30, and 15 mg · kg −1 · d −1 ) and methadone (60, 30, and 5 mg · kg −1 · d −1 ) applied by subcutaneous implantation of osmotic minipumps. (jneurosci.org)
  • The sustained GRK/arrestin-dependent desensitization is another way in which morphine and methadone are distinguished. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present study examines receptor activation, desensitization, recovery from desensitization, and trafficking in locus ceruleus (LC) neurons from rats and mice after chronic treatment with morphine or methadone. (jneurosci.org)
  • When rats were treated with morphine or methadone, the concentration-response curve of [Met 5 ]enkephalin (ME) measured in LC neurons was shifted to the right and acute desensitization was increased. (jneurosci.org)
  • The recovery from desensitization was reduced in slices from morphine-treated rats and mice, whereas the recovery from desensitization was not different from control in slices from methadone-treated animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • In particular, users report an intense rush, an acute transcendent state of euphoria, which occurs while diamorphine is being metabolized into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • relapse
  • The brain's chemical structure is impacted by drugs of abuse and these changes are present long after an individual stops using, This change in brain structure increases risk for relapse, making treatment an important part of the rehabilitation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolophine
  • Lilly is currently the largest manufacturer of psychiatric medications and produces Prozac (fluoxetine), Dolophine (methadone), Cymbalta (duloxetine), and Zyprexa (olanzapine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats
  • Describes research with rats to better understand cocaine's effect on the neural signaling in the learning circuits of the brain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Both vaccines induced rats' immune system to produce high titers of antibodies that inhibit the target drug from reaching the brain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The concentrations of 14C and unchanged methadone were higher in kidneys and lower in lungs of DMI-treated rats as compared to controls. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In 1953, James Olds and Peter Milner, of McGill University, observed that rats preferred to return to the region of the test apparatus where they received direct electrical stimulation to the septal area of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this demonstration, Olds and Milner inferred that the stimulation was rewarding, and through subsequent experiments, they confirmed that they could train rats to execute novel behaviors, such as lever pressing, in order to receive short pulse trains of brain stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • Subjects are trained to continuously respond for electrical stimulation of that brain region, which produces BSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • Learn the truth about this effective harm reduction strategy with these methadone myths and facts . (drugrehab.us)
  • It's on the budget chopping block to have a rate reduction so severe, we may soon find 4,000 methadone patients back out on the street. (pressherald.com)
  • Methadone reduction programs are suitable for addicted persons who wish to completely stop using drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • Finnegan LP (1983) Clinical perinatal and developmental effects of methadone. (springer.com)
  • We have uncovered a 'developmental clock' within the brain -- a biolo. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We have uncovered a 'developmental clock' within the brain -- a biological signature of maturation that captures age differences quite well regardless of other kinds of differences that exist across individuals," study first author Timothy Brown, a developmental cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, said in a university news release. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The authors said their multidimensional brain measurements might help in the early detection of developmental brain disorders. (bio-medicine.org)
  • alterations
  • A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness or behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deaths
  • The number of deaths in the United States involving methadone poisoning declined to 3,300 in 2015, from 4,418 in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Describes clinical trial results providing evidence that methadone maintenance to men in prison can pay off in better retention in community treatment and reduced drug abuse following their release. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Medical researchers have repeatedly found that the jail's methadone treatment program has resulted in overall health care cost savings, reduced crime and recidivism, reduced HIV and hepatitis C transmission, and better than average rates of recovery from drug use. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Classified as Scheduled II drug by the Controlled Substance Act, methadone is both habit forming and potentially addictive. (addictionblog.org)
  • However, after consuming methadone daily for a certain period of time, the body creates gets used to the presence of the drug. (addictionblog.org)
  • Methadone withdrawal is the process during which the human system gets rid of a drug and stabilizes. (addictionblog.org)
  • Many people misunderstand methadone and believe that it is just another form of drug addiction. (drugrehab.us)
  • Although it is also an opioid, methadone is not a substitute drug. (drugrehab.us)
  • In the US, outpatient treatment programs must be certified by the Federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and registered by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in order to prescribe methadone for opioid addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical brain stimulation and intracranial drug injections produce robust reward sensation due to a relatively direct activation of the reward circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Using advanced MRI technology, the researchers took multidimensional brain measurements among a diverse group of nearly 900 children and teenagers, ranging in age from 3 to 20 years old. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers examined brain features known to change over time, such as the volume of deep structures, tissue properties, signal intensities and cortical thickness and area. (bio-medicine.org)
  • mood
  • Acute withdrawal usually lasts for 7-10 days, but if the methadone use was long-term, some symptoms can persist for several weeks or months, especially those related to mood and sleep. (addictionblog.org)
  • effects
  • Thus, the long-term effects of IBMX on the opioid withdrawal response cannot be explained by changes in the number of opioid binding sites (labelled with [ 3 H]naloxone) within the brain. (springer.com)
  • Substance use and abuse cause a number of ill health effects, but the idea that methadone maintenance is bad for your health is not completely true. (drugrehab.us)
  • Early studies on the motivational effects of brain stimulation addressed two primary questions: 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • naloxone
  • Prolonged hypoxia from respiratory depression can also lead to detrimental damage to the brain and spinal cord and can leave the person unable to walk or function normally, even if treatment with naloxone is given. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous system
  • For this reason, electrical brain stimulation provides a tool for identifying the reward circuitry within the central nervous system with some degree of anatomical and neurochemical specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several scientists and scientific groups have expressed the belief that amphibians can feel pain, however, this remains somewhat controversial due to differences in brain structure and the nervous system compared with other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • last
  • This withdrawal is not like the other opioid withdrawals: it stars a while after the last methadone intake. (addictionblog.org)
  • If you listened to the testimony before the Committee on Health and Human Services last week, you might have walked away with tears in your eyes, as many committee members did after listening to patients, their parents and families who say methadone has been the only treatment that works for their loved ones. (pressherald.com)
  • receive
  • As the medical director of the city's correctional health program, he ensures that offenders who come in on methadone continue to receive it. (pewtrusts.org)
  • rapidly
  • Reports animal study findings on development of an antibody fragment that rapidly removes methamphetamine from the brain and discusses implications for treatment of overdose. (drugabuse.gov)
  • childhood
  • Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH) Childhood mumps Children born to mothers who had ingested the endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol for potential miscarriage Traumatic brain injury, even in childhood In males, normal aging causes a decrease in androgens, which is sometimes called "male menopause" (also known by the coinage "manopause"), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), and andropause or androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM), among other names. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • In primary hypogonadism the LH and/or FSH are usually elevated, meaning the problem is in the testicles, whereas in secondary hypogonadism, both are normal or low, suggesting the problem is in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with opiate injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • In contrast, recovery and recycling were unchanged in slices from methadone-treated animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Often, animals that work to initiate brain stimulation will also work to terminate the stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this complexity, the presence of pain in non-human animals cannot be determined unambiguously using observational methods, but the conclusion that animals experience pain is often inferred on the basis of likely presence of phenomenal consciousness which is deduced from comparative brain physiology as well as physical and behavioural reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peter Singer, a bioethicist and author of Animal Liberation published in 1975, suggested that consciousness is not necessarily the key issue: just because animals have smaller brains, or are 'less conscious', this does not mean that they are not capable of feeling pain. (wikipedia.org)