• relapse
  • The brain's chemical structure is impacted by drugs of abuse and these changes are present long after an individual stops using, This change in brain structure increases risk for relapse, making treatment an important part of the rehabilitation process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolophine
  • Lilly is currently the largest manufacturer of psychiatric medications and produces Prozac (fluoxetine), Dolophine (methadone), Cymbalta (duloxetine), and Zyprexa (olanzapine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats
  • Describes research with rats to better understand cocaine's effect on the neural signaling in the learning circuits of the brain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Both vaccines induced rats' immune system to produce high titers of antibodies that inhibit the target drug from reaching the brain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The concentrations of 14C and unchanged methadone were higher in kidneys and lower in lungs of DMI-treated rats as compared to controls. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In 1953, James Olds and Peter Milner, of McGill University, observed that rats preferred to return to the region of the test apparatus where they received direct electrical stimulation to the septal area of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this demonstration, Olds and Milner inferred that the stimulation was rewarding, and through subsequent experiments, they confirmed that they could train rats to execute novel behaviors, such as lever pressing, in order to receive short pulse trains of brain stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Due to their sedative effects on the part of the brain which regulates breathing, opioids in high doses present the potential for respiratory depression, and may cause respiratory failure and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • Subjects are trained to continuously respond for electrical stimulation of that brain region, which produces BSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness or behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deaths
  • The number of deaths in the United States involving methadone poisoning declined to 3,300 in 2015, from 4,418 in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Medical researchers have repeatedly found that the jail's methadone treatment program has resulted in overall health care cost savings, reduced crime and recidivism, reduced HIV and hepatitis C transmission, and better than average rates of recovery from drug use. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Using advanced MRI technology, the researchers took multidimensional brain measurements among a diverse group of nearly 900 children and teenagers, ranging in age from 3 to 20 years old. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers examined brain features known to change over time, such as the volume of deep structures, tissue properties, signal intensities and cortical thickness and area. (bio-medicine.org)
  • drug
  • Describes clinical trial results providing evidence that methadone maintenance to men in prison can pay off in better retention in community treatment and reduced drug abuse following their release. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Here in New York, where methadone was first researched at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in the 1960s and methadone clinics are more plentiful than Broadway theaters, use of the drug in the city's jails has never been controversial. (pewtrusts.org)
  • However, after consuming methadone daily for a certain period of time, the body creates gets used to the presence of the drug. (addictionblog.org)
  • Many people misunderstand methadone and believe that it is just another form of drug addiction. (drugrehab.us)
  • Although it is also an opioid, methadone is not a substitute drug. (drugrehab.us)
  • citation needed] Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is prescribed to individuals who wish to abstain from illicit drug use but have failed to maintain abstinence from opioids for significant periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US, outpatient treatment programs must be certified by the Federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and registered by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in order to prescribe methadone for opioid addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical brain stimulation and intracranial drug injections produce robust reward sensation due to a relatively direct activation of the reward circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • naloxone
  • Prolonged hypoxia from respiratory depression can also lead to detrimental damage to the brain and spinal cord and can leave the person unable to walk or function normally, even if treatment with naloxone is given. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous system
  • For this reason, electrical brain stimulation provides a tool for identifying the reward circuitry within the central nervous system with some degree of anatomical and neurochemical specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several scientists and scientific groups have expressed the belief that amphibians can feel pain, however, this remains somewhat controversial due to differences in brain structure and the nervous system compared with other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • Opioids, because of their effect on the part of the brain that regulates breathing, can during overdoses lead to the person not breathing (respiratory depression) and therefore result in death. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • Reports animal study findings on development of an antibody fragment that rapidly removes methamphetamine from the brain and discusses implications for treatment of overdose. (drugabuse.gov)
  • childhood
  • Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH) Childhood mumps Children born to mothers who had ingested the endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol for potential miscarriage Traumatic brain injury, even in childhood In males, normal aging causes a decrease in androgens, which is sometimes called "male menopause" (also known by the coinage "manopause"), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), and andropause or androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM), among other names. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • In contrast, recovery and recycling were unchanged in slices from methadone-treated animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • Often, animals that work to initiate brain stimulation will also work to terminate the stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this complexity, the presence of pain in non-human animals cannot be determined unambiguously using observational methods, but the conclusion that animals experience pain is often inferred on the basis of likely presence of phenomenal consciousness which is deduced from comparative brain physiology as well as physical and behavioural reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peter Singer, a bioethicist and author of Animal Liberation published in 1975, suggested that consciousness is not necessarily the key issue: just because animals have smaller brains, or are 'less conscious', this does not mean that they are not capable of feeling pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • In primary hypogonadism the LH and/or FSH are usually elevated, meaning the problem is in the testicles, whereas in secondary hypogonadism, both are normal or low, suggesting the problem is in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • circuits
  • BSR has been found in all vertebrates tested, including humans, and it has provided a useful tool for understanding how natural rewards are processed by specific brain regions and circuits, as well the neurotransmission associated with the reward system. (wikipedia.org)