• cranium
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facial
  • The standard method of diagnosis is via MRI scan although a CT scan is a common alternative as it gives a clearer and more useful image to see how close the damage may have gotten to the brain and facial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • Based on the surgical finding, they determined that this misdiagnosis was due to a vascular variant, the occipitotemporal vein (OTV, vein of Labbe) that masqueraded as an abscess on the CT scan. (medscape.com)
  • At the stage of encephalitis, antimicrobial therapy and utilization of measures to lower the increase in the intracranial pressure can prevent the formation of an intracranial abscess However, after an abscess has emerged, surgical removal or drainage may be necessary, along with an extended course of antimicrobial therapy (4-8 weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of antimicrobials in a high-dose for an extended period of time can offer an alternative treatment strategy in this type of patients and may substitute for surgical evacuation of an abscess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urgent CT/MRI to confirm the diagnosis followed by urgent surgical decompression to avoid permanent neurological damage Epidural abscess, again with potential permanent neurological damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Karnath summarizes these two conflicting views, as they conclude that both neglect and aphasia are highly correlated with pusher syndrome possibly due to the close proximity of relevant brain structures associated with these two respective syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • weakness
  • Other impairments, though, can at first seem completely non-related to the limb weakness but are, in fact, a direct result of the damage to the affected side of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The tissue over the abscess becomes elevated, soft, and eventually unstable (fluctuant) and discolored as the abscess comes to a head (points). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SEAs are more common in posterior than anterior areas, and the most common location is the thoracolumbar area, where epidural space is larger and contains more fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lung tissue, they multiply and may disseminate through blood and lymphatics to other organs, including the skin, bone, genitourinary tract, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pressure-volume relationship between ICP, volume of CSF, blood, and brain tissue, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is known as the Monro-Kellie doctrine or the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Pusher syndrome" is a clinical disorder following left or right brain damage in which patients actively push their weight away from the nonhemiparetic side to the hemiparetic side. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • Epidural fluid is observed as higher signal intensity than the ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI. (medscape.com)
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The anaerobes often isolated from brain abscesses complicating respiratory and dental infections are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB, including Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides), Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, blood-borne infections of the brain are very rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • In cases of trauma, for example in compound skull fractures where fragments of bone are pushed into the substance of the brain, the cause of the abscess is obvious. (wikipedia.org)
  • poorly
  • Abscess appears as a poorly defined lentiform area of low or intermediate density (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • membrane
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • If they fall from the utricle and become loose in the semicircular canals, they can distort the sense of movement and cause a mismatch between actual head movement and the information sent to the brain by the inner ear, causing a spinning sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • Abnormalities in balance function may indicate a wide range of pathologies from causes like inner ear disorders, low blood pressure, brain tumors, and brain injury including stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The trickiest problem for doctors is diagnosing epidural abscesses or arachnoiditis, because many of the patients exposed to the mold-contaminated steroids already have chronic back pain. (gpb.org)
  • often
  • CT scanning of the brain without enhancement is often used as a screening tool in the assessment. (medscape.com)
  • Hemiparesis with origin in the lower section of the brain creates a condition known as ataxia, a loss of both gross and fine motor skills, often manifesting as staggering and stumbling. (wikipedia.org)