• molecule
  • ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall process of oxidizing glucose to carbon dioxide, the combination of pathways 1 and 2, is known as cellular respiration, produces about 30 equivalents of ATP from each molecule of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In signal transduction pathways, ATP is used as a substrate by kinases that phosphorylate proteins and lipids , as well as by adenylate cyclase , which uses ATP to produce the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP . (wikidoc.org)
  • ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, and was proposed to be the main energy-transfer molecule in the cell by Fritz Albert Lipmann in 1941. (wikidoc.org)
  • As ATP is an unstable molecule it tends to be hydrolysed in water, and if ATP and ADP are allowed to come to chemical equilibrium , almost all the ATP will be converted to ADP. (wikidoc.org)
  • ATP is commonly referred to as a "high energy molecule", however this is incorrect, as a mixture of ATP and ADP at equilibrium in water can do no useful work at all. (wikidoc.org)
  • In fact, ATP does not contain any special "high-energy bonds" and any other unstable molecule would serve equally well as a way of storing energy if the cell maintained its concentration far from equilibrium. (wikidoc.org)
  • enzyme
  • 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In crystals of F1-ATPase grown in the presence of both nucleotides and inhibitor, efrapeptin is bound to a unique site in the central cavity of the enzyme. (cam.ac.uk)
  • intracellular
  • Because SERCA and NCX modulated mobile pH response in neglectable way, and all circumstances utilized to lessen PMCA avoided KCl-induced pH drop, we regarded as PMCA2 and PMCA3 as primarily accountable for transportation of protons to intracellular milieu. (techtasys.com)
  • Found in all forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ( ATP ) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer. (wikidoc.org)
  • pore
  • Cyclosporin and bongkrekic acidity avoided meters reduction recommending the participation of Ca2+-powered starting of mitochondrial permeability changeover pore as putative root system. (techtasys.com)
  • redox
  • These redox reactions release energy, which is used to form ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of the method is to monitor the mitochondrial redox state of biventricular working hearts during protocols that alter the rate of myocyte metabolism or induce hypoxia or create a combination of the two. (jove.com)
  • inhibit
  • The F1 fraction derives its name from the term "Fraction 1" and FO (written as a subscript letter "o", not "zero") derives its name from being the binding fraction for oligomycin, a type of naturally-derived antibiotic that is able to inhibit the FO unit of ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The main control point for the glycolytic pathway is phosphofructokinase (PFK), which is allosterically inhibited by high concentrations of ATP and activated by high concentrations of AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The protein has two binding sites for ATP - the active site is accessible in either protein conformation, but ATP binding to the inhibitor site stabilizes the conformation that binds F6P poorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components, a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of its structure, ATP consists of an adenine attached by the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon atom of a sugar (ribose), which in turn is attached at the 5′ carbon atom of the sugar to a triphosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP consists of adenosine - itself composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar - and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). (wikidoc.org)
  • proteins
  • The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the interaction of ATP with various proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Mitochondria not really just hyperlink Ca2+ homeostasis to cell fat burning capacity, but may get cell destiny by controlling ATP/ADP proportion also. (techtasys.com)
  • ATP production by a non-photosynthetic aerobic eukaryote occurs mainly in the mitochondria, which comprise nearly 25% of the volume of a typical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis
  • In glycolysis, hexokinase is directly inhibited by its product, glucose-6-phosphate, and pyruvate kinase is inhibited by ATP itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • I just wanted to link these mice to the normal physiological insulin resistance generated by mtG3Pdh (when glucose/fructose is the primary metabolic fuel) and the protons ideas. (blogspot.com.br)
  • contrary
  • AR-42 Since Ca2+ and protons possess contrary results on many mobile procedures, the part of PMCA in the legislation of calcium mineral homeostasis may become of fundamental importance for upkeep of mobile energy. (techtasys.com)
  • centers
  • Performing simply because the enthusiastic centers, they form signaling paths, control distribution of Ca2+ surf and by offering ATP to calcium mineral pushes increase calcium mineral gradients . (techtasys.com)
  • Due to the strength of the ATP-Mg2+ interaction, ATP exists in the cell mostly as a complex with Mg2+ bonded to the phosphate oxygen centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Studies revealed both YidC1 and YidC2 can function in E. coli to assemble an active F1Fo ATPase in a YidC-depletion strain. (ufl.edu)
  • indicates
  • Our study indicates that signal transduction and mitochondrial ATP production are essential during adaptation of leukemic cells to vincristine, these processes represent potential therapeutic targets. (elsevier.es)
  • occur
  • The dephosphorylation of ATP and rephosphorylation of ADP and AMP occur repeatedly in the course of aerobic metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • ATP is stable in aqueous solutions between pH 6.8 and 7.4, but it is rapidly hydrolysed at more extreme pH's. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP is highly soluble in water and is quite stable in solutions between pH 6.8-7.4, but is rapidly hydrolysed at extreme pH, consequently ATP is best stored as an anhydrous salt. (wikidoc.org)
  • motor
  • Enzim ini seperti motor listrik , yang menggunakan gaya gerak proton untuk mendorong rotasi strukturnya dan menggunakan pergerakan ini untuk mensintesis ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Mitochondrial Ca2+ IL1R1 antibody subscriber base in unchanged cells was noticed at low cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations varying from 150 to 300 nM . (techtasys.com)