• enzyme
  • An associated method may be used to detect antibody-antigen reactions, the binding of two strands of nucleic acid, the binding of an enzyme to one of its substrates, and so on. (google.ca)
  • For this reason in order to fully comprehend the kinetics of a drug it is necessary to have detailed knowledge of a number of factors such as: the properties of the substances that act as excipients, the characteristics of the appropriate biological membranes and the way that substances can cross them, or the characteristics of the enzyme reactions that inactivate the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • All enzyme assays measure either the consumption of substrate or production of product over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human α-enolase, the substrate is rotated into position upon binding to the enzyme due to interactions with the two catalytic magnesium ions, Gln167, and Lys396. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological systems, the analogous terms of host and guest are commonly referred to as enzyme and substrate respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactants
  • The apparatus generates a holographic image at a predetermined location when the reactants are present and bound to one another. (google.ca)
  • Essential aspects of binding assays include, but are not limited to, the concentration level of reactants or products (see radioactive section), maintaining the equilibrium constant of reactants throughout the assay, and the reliability and validity of linked reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • pharmacology
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • analytic
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, after the assay, the result may be documented, verified and transmitted/communicated in steps that are called post-analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. not only analytic variations and errors intrinsic to the assay itself but also variations and errors involved in preanalytic and post analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinities
  • Any change of the hydration shell of biomolecules due to changes in their structure/conformation results in a relative change of the movement along the temperature gradient and is used to determine binding affinities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • Some assays (e.g., biochemical assays) may be similar to or have overlap with chemical analysis and titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus reading of an assay may be quite noisy and may involve greater difficulties in interpretation than an accurate chemical titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, hits also regularly originate from en-masse testing of chemical compounds against biological targets, where the compounds may be from novel synthetic chemical libraries known to have particular properties (kinase inhibitory activity, diversity or drug-likeness, etc.), or from historic chemical compound collections or libraries created through combinatorial chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a number of approaches toward the identification and development of hits exist, the most successful techniques are based on chemical and biological intuition developed in team environments through years of rigorous practice aimed solely at discovering new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • A large number of different methods of measuring the concentrations of substrates and products exist and many enzymes can be assayed in several different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • From then on, DNA binding sites for many transcription factors, restriction enzymes and site-specific recombinases have been discovered using a profusion of experimental methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitive
  • Through the development of RIA technology, researchers have been able to move beyond the use of radioactivity, and instead, use liquid- and solid-phase, competitive, and immunoradiometric assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • constants
  • The experimental data are quantified and explained through analysis of binding constants Ka, Gibbs free energy ΔGo, Enthalpy ΔHo, and entropy ΔSo. (wikipedia.org)
  • fail
  • Although binding assays are simple, they fail to provide information on whether or not the compound being tested affects the target's function. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • They investigated the binding interaction for insulin and an insulin-specific antibody, in addition to developing the first radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • To directly address the presence and function of these putative binding sites, we synthesized and tested analogues of the NAADP antagonist Ned-19. (ox.ac.uk)
  • DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sum of DNA binding sites of a specific transcription factor is referred to as its cistrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been reported that some binding sites have potential to undergo fast evolutionary change. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA binding sites can be categorized according to their biological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we can distinguish between transcription factor-binding sites, restriction sites and recombination sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors have proposed that binding sites could also be classified according to their most convenient mode of representation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of something akin to DNA binding sites was suspected from the experiments on the biology of the bacteriophage lambda and the regulation of the Escherichia coli lac operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA binding sites were finally confirmed in both systems with the advent of DNA sequencing techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the development of DNA microarrays and fast sequencing techniques has led to new, massively parallel methods for in-vivo identification of binding sites, such as ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the diverse nature of the experimental techniques used in determining binding sites and to the patchy coverage of most organisms and transcription factors, there is no central database (akin to GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information) for DNA binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are, however, several private and public databases devoted to compilation of experimentally reported, and sometimes computationally predicted, binding sites for different transcription factors in different organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate way of representing binding sites is through Position Specific Frequency Matrices (PSFM). (wikipedia.org)
  • PSFM are usually conceived with the implicit assumption of positional independence (different positions at the DNA binding site contribute independently to the site function), although this assumption has been disputed for some DNA binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • It can also identify site positions that are neutral or specific bases that can interfere with binding, such as a T at - 4 in the E47 half-site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to rationally and confidently design synthetic systems that perform specific functions and tasks, it is very important to understand the thermodynamics of binding between host and guest. (wikipedia.org)
  • target
  • An apparatus detects a target reactant that binds to an immobilized reactant. (google.ca)
  • The locations are chosen such that a holographic plate is generated when the target reactant binds to the immobilized reactant. (google.ca)
  • usually
  • The instance of binding occurs over an infinitesimal range of time and space, so the rate constant is usually a very small number. (wikipedia.org)
  • curve
  • This binding curve can directly be fitted with the nonlinear solution of the law of mass action, with the dissociation constant KD as result. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • especially
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, forensic and many other businesses at various scales from industrial to curbside or field level. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • For assay of currency coins, this literally meant analysis of the purity of the gold or silver or whatever precious component was used to represent the true value of the coin. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Moreover, due to the limited success of bioinformatics in producing efficient DNA binding site prediction tools (large false positive rates are often associated with in-silico motif discovery / site search methods), there has been no systematic effort to computationally annotate these features in sequenced genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Longer incubation time and large quantity are provided in case of an unspecific binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • By combining the power of random-sequence selection with pooled sequencing, the SAAB imprint assay makes possible simultaneous screening of a large number of binding site mutants. (wikipedia.org)