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  • Alzheimer's
  • As the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common dementia in the elderly, continues to increase, neurologists will encounter a growing number of questions about genetic testing for dementia patients, their relatives, and people concerned about memory or cognitive function who have no apparent risk except advancing age. (medreviews.com)
  • We and others have examined patients with various neurodegenerative and behavioral neurological conditions, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders ([ASD], including Autism, Attention Deficit Disorder, Asperger Syndrome), and found evidence for systemic intracellular bacterial and viral infections in a majority of patients. (townsendletter.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease Braak Stage progressions: reexamined and redefined as Borrelia infection transmission through neural circuits. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Endemic
  • Lyme disease is most endemic in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions, but sporadic cases have been described in other areas of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • This might be due to the very low incidence in an endemic region (0.2%, CI 95% 0.0% to 1.1%) as demonstrated in 517 patients hospitalized for psychiatric diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • 1993
  • Pediatr Res, 1993 Jan,33(1Suppl):S90-4 Dept. Neurology, University Pennsylvania School of Medicine In this abstract, Guillain-Barre disease is the topic with Lyme mentioned as well. (borrelioosi.net)
  • Bacterial
  • Patients with neurodegenerative diseases and behavioral disorders often have systemic bacterial, viral, and/or fungal infections that are important in disease progression and severity. (townsendletter.com)
  • 1 In addition to genetic changes and changes in gene expression, it is thought that nutritional deficiencies, head trauma, environmental toxins, chronic bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune immunological responses, vascular diseases, accumulation of fluid in the brain, changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, and other causes are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. (townsendletter.com)
  • An attractive model for neurodegeneration resulting in neurological disease involves the action of toxic products produced as a result of chronic bacterial and/or viral infections. (townsendletter.com)
  • Lyme disease (LD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tick-borne bacterial diseases worldwide. (springer.com)
  • In the first part of this review we considered neurodegenerative and neurobehavioural diseases and the findings that these diseases commonly are associated with systemic and central nervous system bacterial and viral infections. (blogspot.com)
  • patients
  • showed that patients with neuroborreliosis demonstrate a blood brain barrier disturbance with 62 % showing an elevated albumin ratio and 60 % revealing an increased IgG index, indicative of intrathecal IgG synthesis. (upmc.edu)
  • Oral antimicrobials have been shown to be effective in European neuroborreliosis and presumably are equally potent in North American patients. (medreviews.com)
  • We review the neuro-ophthalmic literatureon FAS to alert neurologists to the ocular disease seen in patients with this condition. (medreviews.com)
  • Patients were recruited who were previously tested for Borrelia burgdorferi using Western Blot analysis. (townsendletter.com)
  • It is clear that in the great majority of patients, chronic Lyme is a disease affecting predominantly the nervous system. (ariplex.com)
  • Findings showed that a group of Lyme patients had both proximal and distal paraspinal denervation on electromyographic testing (EMG) with clearly ALS signs. (borrelioosi.net)
  • Many patients with Lyme disease have had a hard hit to their immune systems by this immune-suppressing infection and many of us have had to have gammaglobulin intravenously to help us fight the infection. (borrelioosi.net)
  • this rash occurs in 75% of patients infected with Lyme disease and tends to resolve from the inside-out, leaving a bull's eye mark on the skin (Frey 2002). (davidson.edu)
  • Use of bisphosphonates in patients with conditions or diseases affecting renal function is not recommended. (issuu.com)
  • However, about 10-15% of patients with Lyme arthritis fail the initial course of antibiotics, and some of those develop a chronic inflammatory arthritis optimally treated with local or systemic immunosuppressive agents. (springer.com)
  • Although most patients with Lyme/tick-borne disease do not become violent, a small percent of patients who become infected develop a type of neurological dysfunction that can increase their risk of aggressiveness. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In working with a number of patients with Lyme/tick-borne diseases it is apparent to many clinicians these conditions can cause reduced frustration tolerance, irritability, depression , cognitive impairments and mood swings, but more significantly, in a few patients, suicidal and aggressive tendencies. (psychologytoday.com)
  • We conducted retrospective and prospective surveys of patients with unexplained fever (suspected TBRF) in northwestern Morocco during 2000-2006 and used 2 genomic regions of Borrelia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 75,950 patients, 84 had Borrelia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • All patients were screened for Borrelia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • 11 In contrast, if the SF-36 was used to determine Quality of Life (QOL) in post-Lyme patients, the average SF-36 physical component summary (40±9, range 29-44) and mental component summary (39±14, range 23-46) of the QOL assessment were worse than the general USA population, and they could be significantly improved by anti-Lyme antibiotics (46% versus 18%, p =0.007). (blogspot.com)
  • recurrentis
  • Occult infections and their role in the pathophysiology of some diseases of unclear etiology Charles Nicolle, working at the Institut Pasteur in Tunis and Nobel prize winner in 1928, showed great interest in the concept of occult infections ("les infections inapparentes") like typhus, syphilis and relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) (16). (borrelioosi.net)
  • bacteria
  • Thirteen distinct genomic classifications of Lyme disease bacteria have been identified worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxycycline kills the symbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in the reproductive tracts of parasitic filarial nematodes, making the nematodes sterile, and thus reducing transmission of diseases such as onchocerciasis and elephantiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ixodes
  • Over 200 vectors carry the Ixodes tick, which is the most commonly known insect spreading Lyme disease. (lymebook.com)
  • Des Vignes F, Piesman J, Heffernan R, Schulze TL, Stafford KC 3rd, Fish D. Effect of tick removal on transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis nymphs. (springer.com)
  • antibiotic
  • When interpreting immunodiagnostic test results it has to be considered that there are a lot of variability as the phenotype characteristics of borrelia, different antigenic structures, different geographical distribution, phase varies in duration of the disease, characteristics of individual immune responses, presence of other diseases as well as the applied antibiotic treatment, which all can affect the outcome. (md-medicaldata.com)
  • Doxycycline has not been widely studied as a treatment in the US, but antibiotic sensitivities of prevailing European and US isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi tend to be identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuropsychiatric
  • Thus the value of careful evaluation that often includes neuropsychiatric testing, SPECT and MRI brain scans, CSF analysis when appropriate, regular input from Lyme-aware neurologists, pain clinics, and occasionally specialists in psychopharmacology. (ariplex.com)
  • neurological
  • 1-5 One of the biochemical changes found in essentially all neurological degenerative diseases is the over-expression of oxidative free radical compounds (oxidative stress) that cause lipid, protein, and genetic structural changes. (townsendletter.com)
  • Can microbes and immune reactions to them actually contribute to cognitive decline, degenerative neurological disease, developmental disabilities, mental illness, personality changes and, at the most extreme, even violent and criminal behavior? (psychologytoday.com)
  • 2016
  • Lyme Disease Differential Diagnoses: Diagnostic Considerations Updated: Mar 14, 2016 CDC Two-step Laboratory Testing Process Page last reviewed: March 4, 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • Newly discovered genospecies have also been found to cause disease in humans: B. lusitaniae in Europe (especially Portugal), North Africa and Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • With so many vectors, the underlying assumption behind this checklist is that Lyme is not rare in North America, Europe, South America, Russia, Africa or Asia. (lymebook.com)
  • The disease is rarely detected in northern Africa and Mediterranean countries ( 3 , 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Centers
  • Of cases reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of Lyme disease infection is 7.9 cases for every 100,000 persons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence-based data are scarce therefore many aspects of the disease remain controversial (2,3,4), but in 2013 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised their annual estimates from 30,000 cases to 300,000 cases in the USA alone. (borrelioosi.net)
  • epidemic
  • Lyme arthritis: an epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three connecticut communities. (springer.com)