• vivo
  • K. Inaba, M. Inaba, M. Naito, and R. M. Steinman, Dendritic cell progenitors phagocytose particulates, including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms, and sensitize mice to mycobacterial antigens in vivo. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we tested whether 4-1BB expression affected T cell responses differently when expressed in myeloid versus lymphoid cells in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore, in vivo 4-1BB triggering with agonistic anti-4-1BB mAb enhances overall CD8 + T cell responses by enhancing T cell expansion and survival, broadening the CD8 + T cell repertoire, and enhancing memory formation ( 5 - 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We have identified HOXC6 as a factor that enhances competitive repopulation capacity in vivo and colony formation in vitro. (jove.com)
  • This property of TPO qualified it for ex vivo expansion procedures aimed to amplify committed progenitors and stem cells, or, at least, to maintain the latter. (springer.com)
  • Duchez P, Chevaleyre J, Vlaski M, Dazey B, Bijou F, Lafarge X, Milpied N, Boiron JM, Ivanovic Z (2011) Thrombopoietin to replace megakaryocyte-derived growth factor: impact on stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo expansion of CD34+ cells mobilized in peripheral blood. (springer.com)
  • Fan JL, Cai HB, Tan WS (2008) Effect of regulating intracellular ROS with antioxidants on the ex vivo expansion of cord blood CD34(+) cells. (springer.com)
  • Ivanovic Z (2004) Interleukin-3 and ex vivo maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells: facts and controversies. (springer.com)
  • Ivanovic Z, Boiron JM (2009) Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells: concept and clinical benefit. (springer.com)
  • The participants critically discussed the need for a precise definition of cancer stem cells, the requirement for new markers and more rapid and tractable in vitro and in vivo assays, and the need to develop drug screening strategies to selectively target cancer stem cells to generate therapeutics for this subpopulation of cells that could be resistant to classic treatments while possessing potent tumor-forming capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ly6G + MDSCs in Lal-/- mice show strong immunosuppression on T cells, which contributes to impaired T cell proliferation and function in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the hemangioblast theory appears to be generally supported, most of the studies done have been in vitro, indicating a need for in vivo studies to elucidate its existence. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-6 allow the in vitro generation of MDSC that retain their suppressive function in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytic MDSCs seem to be precursors of granulocytic subsets demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-CSF is a colony stimulating factor which has been shown to have minimal direct in vivo or in vitro effects on the production of other haematopoietic cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some respects, dendritic cells cultured in vitro do not show the same behaviour or capability as dendritic cells isolated ex vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, mice experiments by Halachmi and Witz showed that for the same cancer cell line, greater tumorigenicity was evident in vivo than the same strain inoculated in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that this induces greater cell migration in vivo and in vitro, possibly by promoting degradation of the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythroid
  • By 6 days post challenge, HPCs harvested from challenged calves failed to develop CFU-E (erythroid) colonies and the development of both CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM (granulocyte/macrophage) was markedly reduced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The burst-forming units BFU-E (burst-forming unit-erythroid) and BFU-Meg or BFU-Mk (burst-forming unit-megakaryocyte) are earlier erythroid progenitors than the CFU-E and CFU-Meg, respectively. (thermofisher.com)
  • Whereas FL did not enhance burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colony formation of CD34+ BM cells in the presence of serum, a low number of BFU-E colonies were formed in response to FL plus erythropoietin (Epo) under serum-deprived conditions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hematopoiesis
  • In adults, osteoblasts, responsible for osteogenesis, and hematopoietic cells, responsible for hematopoiesis, are closely associated in the bone marrow, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between the two. (jci.org)
  • Hematopoiesis is a process in which a relatively small number of stem cells in the bone marrow produce a large number of differentiated blood cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pioneering work of Till and McCulloch in 1961 experimentally confirmed the development of blood cells from a single precursor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), creating the framework for the field of hematopoiesis to be studied over the following decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoiesis is the process by which all mature blood cells are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Direct 4-1BB signaling to activated T cells enhances their survival, proliferation, cytokine production, and Th1 polarization in vitro ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The initial stages of pluripotent hematopoietic cell development is regulated by broadly acting cytokine groups/growth factors such as IL-3 (interleukin-3), SCF (stem cell factor), GMCSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), IL-1 (interleukin-1), IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-11 (interleukin-11), IL-2 (interleukin-2), and thymosin beta-4. (thermofisher.com)
  • Although IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 can drive this eosinophilopoiesis process in vitro ( 1 ), IL-5 appears to be the critical cytokine specific to eosinophil development ( 4 - 6 ) and mechanistically acts to drive expansion and survival of EoMs within the bone marrow ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • tumor
  • F. Sallusto and A. Lanzavecchia, Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor a. (springer.com)
  • Surprisingly, adoptively transferred T cells were more responsive in tumor-bearing RAG2 −/− 4-1BB −/− mice than in RAG2 −/− mice, and this enhanced T cell proliferation was further enhanced if the T cells were 4-1BB deficient. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, tumor growth was spontaneously suppressed in 4-1BB −/− mice because CD8 + T cell responses were enhanced by the increased development of NK cells in the bone marrow (BM) ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A workshop was convened by the AACR to discuss the rapidly emerging cancer stem cell model for tumor development and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indeed, one critical question contemplated at the Workshop was whether tumors derive from organ stem cells that retain self-renewal properties but acquire epigenetic and genetic changes required for tumorigenicity or whether tumor stem cells are proliferative progenitors that acquire self-renewal capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Either mechanism is different from the widely held notion that most cells in a tumor should be competent for tumor formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the cancer stem cell model of tumors, there is a small subset of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells, which constitute a reservoir of self-sustaining cells with the exclusive ability to self-renew and maintain the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cancer stem cells have the capacity to both divide and expand the cancer stem cell pool and to differentiate into the heterogeneous nontumorigenic cancer cell types that in most cases appear to constitute the bulk of the cancer cells within the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • If cancer stem cells are relatively refractory to therapies that have been developed to eradicate the rapidly dividing cells within the tumor that constitute the majority of the nonstem cell component of tumors, then they are unlikely to be curative and relapses would be expected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • If correct, the cancer stem cell hypothesis would require that we rethink the way we diagnose and treat tumors, as our objective would have to turn from eliminating the bulk of rapidly dividing but terminally differentiated components of the tumor and be refocused on the minority stem cell population that fuels tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells within the tumor often seem to correspond to different stages of development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prevailing explanations for the observed tumor cell heterogeneity include influences of the microenvironment and genomic instability that generate the genetic and epigenetic changes, which prevent faithful and accurate replication and transmission of stable genotypes and phenotypes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In microglial cells, the GPR84 induction with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the purpose of this analysis, LSCs are defined as tumor-initiating cells (i.e., cells that have the capacity for long-term self-renewal and are capable of repopulating all hematopoietic cell compartments). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor cell lines overexpressing colony stimulating factors (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1960, Klein and colleagues found that in mice, primary methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas exhibited an antitumor immune response mediated by lymph node cells to cancer cells derived from the primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of melanoma-specific T cells in patients led to the strategy of adoptively transferring large numbers of in vitro-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) which has proven that the immune system has the potential to control cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a lack of oxygen can cause glycolytic behavior in cells, tumor cells also undergo aerobic glycolysis, in which they preferentially produce lactate from glucose even given abundant oxygen, called the Warburg effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • circulate in the b
  • Eosinophils are immune cells that circulate in the blood and also reside in several tissues, including the intestine, thymus, and adipose tissue ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • antigens
  • Such studies support the hypothesis that maternally derived colostral alloantibody targeting a bovine antigen (or antigens) causes the bone marrow pathology in calves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. Reis e Sousa, P. D. Stahl, and J. M. Austyn, Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unambiguous evidence for the inability in humans of a systemic immune response to eliminate immunogenic cancer cells was provided by Boon's 1991 studies of antigens that elicit specific CD8+ T cell responses in melanoma patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • We generated a murine model with conditional inactivation of Csnk1a1 and found that Csnk1a1 haploinsufficiency induces hematopoietic stem cell expansion and a competitive repopulation advantage, whereas homozygous deletion induces hematopoietic stem cell failure. (jove.com)
  • Iida H et al (2012) Hypoxia induces CD133 expression in human lung cancer cells by up-regulation of OCT3/4 and SOX2. (springer.com)
  • Imatinib induces a durable response in most patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia, but it is currently unclear whether imatinib reduces the leukemic stem cell (LSC) burden, which may be an important step toward enabling safe discontinuation of therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although imatinib induces strong responses in many patients with CML, it is unclear whether it targets leukemic stem cells (LSC), which may be necessary for patients to ultimately discontinue treatment and maintain their response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia also causes the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1-α), which induces angiogenesis and is associated with poorer prognosis and the activation of genes associated with metastasis, leading, for instance, to increased cell migration and also ECM remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelets
  • Although most researchers predicted that thrombopoietin (TPO) would be a lineage specific regulator, with physiologic effects limited to megakaryocytes and platelets, it became clear that it is also an important growth factor of hematopoietic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • assays
  • In addition, we focus on studies of animal models and in vitro assays that have provided direct insights into the actions of these osteoblastic and vascular niches, revealing central roles for numerous signaling and adhesion molecules. (jci.org)
  • populations
  • Inherent to such a model is the formation of malignant populations consisting of a developmentally defined hierarchy of heterogeneous phenotypes derived from a small subset of "cancer stem cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is much interest in the environmental and molecular requirements for HSC self-renewal, as understanding the ability of HSC to replenish themselves will eventually allow the generation of expanded populations of HSC in vitro that can be used therapeutically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transplant
  • The EWOG-MDS JMML study allows each child's physician to determine whether or not a splenectomy should be done, and large spleens are commonly removed prior to bone marrow transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The role of chemotherapy or other pharmacologic treatments against JMML before bone marrow transplant has not been studied completely and its importance is still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Head of Hematology at the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the University of British Columbia for 18 years (1985-2003) he engineered the building of one of the first and largest bone marrow transplant programs in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • The bone cavity is filled with soft BM and blood vessels. (jci.org)
  • In 1917, Florence Sabin first observer of blood vessels and red blood cells in the yolk sac of chick embryos occur in close proximity and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • The further specialized a cell is, the more differentiated it is and as a result it is considered to be more committed to a certain cellular lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression and unacceptably low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), making patients susceptible to infections and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • No matter the cause, this leaves the extracellular microenvironment acidic (pH 6.5-6.9), while the cancer cells themselves are able to remain neutral (ph 7.2-7.4). (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • This study suggests that the bone marrow pathology and clinical signs associated with BNP are related to an insult which compromises the pluripotential progenitor cell within the first 24 hours of life but that this does not initially include all cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many of the discoveries described herein may contribute to future clinical treatments for hematopoietic and bone-related disorders, including cancer. (jci.org)
  • Ivanovic Z, Duchez P, Dazey B, Hermitte F, Lamrissi-Garcia I, Mazurier F, Praloran V, Reiffers J, Vezon G, Boiron JM (2006) A clinical-scale expansion of mobilized CD 34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by use of a new serum-free medium. (springer.com)
  • The growth of these cells is becoming more important in view of recent developments in clinical regimens for combatting diseases such as cancer, myeloproliferative diseases and autoimmune diseases. (google.com)
  • This explains why the cancer stem cell hypothesis is at the center of a rapidly evolving field that may play a pivotal role in changing how basic cancer researchers, clinical investigators, physicians, and cancer patients view cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This article combines mathematical modeling with recent clinical observations of progenitor cell kinetics in the bone marrow to support the hypothesis that patients treated with imatinib exhibit a sustained, gradual reduction of LSCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The TME of solid cancers appears to be fundamentally different to that of the leukemias, in which clinical ACT trials with chimeric antigen receptor T cells have demonstrated efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • In the hematopoietic hierarchical system, IL-2 along with SCF regulates promotes cytotoxic function by stimulating the proliferation and activity of NK (natural killer) cells (lymphoid stem cell→natural killer precursor→natural killer cell) . (thermofisher.com)
  • Finally, in vitro treatment of bone marrow cells with IL-33, but not IL-5, led to specific early expansion of IL-5Rα-expressing precursor cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In summary, our findings establish a basal defect in eosinophilopoiesis in IL-33- and ST2-deficient mice and a mechanism whereby IL-33 supports EoMs by driving both systemic IL-5 production and the expansion of IL-5Rα-expressing precursor cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In 1978, after observing that the prototypical colony-forming stem cells were less capable at replacing differentiated cells than bone marrow cells injected into irradiated animals, Schofield proposed that a specialized environment in the bone marrow allows these precursor cells to maintain their cellular reconstitution potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDSCs
  • Ablating lysosomal acid lipase (Lal-/-) in mice led to aberrant expansion of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) (>40% in the blood, and >70% in the bone marrow) that arise from dysregulated production of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDSCs are discriminated from other myeloid cell types in which they possess strong immunosuppressive activities rather than immunostimulatory properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other myeloid cells, MDSCs interact with other immune cell types including T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells to regulate their functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GR1 marker is made up of two cell membrane molecules, Ly6C and Ly6G, and according to their relative expression levels murine MDSCs are further classified into two subtypes, monocytic and granulocytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human MDSCs are less characterized, and they are generally defined as myeloid cells expressing CD33, CD14 and low levels of HLA DR. The absence of the human equivalent to the murine GR1 marker makes it difficult to compare murine and human MDSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These MDSCs infiltrate inflammation sites and tumors, where they stop immune responses by inhibiting T cells and NK cells, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDSCs derive from bone marrow precursors usually as the result of a perturbed myeloipoiesis caused by different pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal
  • By delivering combinations of small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) and Cas9 with a lentiviral vector, we modified up to five genes in a single mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), leading to clonal outgrowth and myeloid malignancy. (jove.com)
  • We studied 46 consecutive patients with AL who underwent quantification of serum M-protein and clonal bone marrow plasma cells, as well as a comprehensive evaluation for end organ damage by MM. Using standard morphology and CD138 immunohistochemical staining, 57% and 80% of patients were found to have concomitant MM, respectively. (stanford.edu)
  • White blood cell count >10 x 109/L. Clonal chromosomal abnormality (e.g., monosomy 7). (wikipedia.org)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • EPCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and experiments were carried out to determine the dose- and time-dependent effects of GM-CSF on angiogenesis, proliferation, viability, migration and vasculogenesis. (scielo.org.za)
  • The process of angiogenesis is dysregulated to feed the cancer cells and as a result the vasculature formed differs from that of normal tissue. (wikipedia.org)