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  • hematopoiesis
  • Bcl-2, which can both reduce apoptosis and retard cell cycle entry, is thought to have important roles in hematopoiesis. (pnas.org)
  • Milner LA, Bigas A. Notch as a mediator of cell fate determination in hematopoiesis: evidence and speculation. (springer.com)
  • In adults, osteoblasts, responsible for osteogenesis, and hematopoietic cells, responsible for hematopoiesis, are closely associated in the bone marrow, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between the two. (jci.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pioneering work of Till and McCulloch in 1961 experimentally confirmed the development of blood cells from a single precursor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), creating the framework for the field of hematopoiesis to be studied over the following decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoiesis is the process by which all mature blood cells are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • F. Sallusto and A. Lanzavecchia, Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor a. (springer.com)
  • Surprisingly, adoptively transferred T cells were more responsive in tumor-bearing RAG2 −/− 4-1BB −/− mice than in RAG2 −/− mice, and this enhanced T cell proliferation was further enhanced if the T cells were 4-1BB deficient. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, tumor growth was spontaneously suppressed in 4-1BB −/− mice because CD8 + T cell responses were enhanced by the increased development of NK cells in the bone marrow (BM) ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In microglial cells, the GPR84 induction with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1960, Klein and colleagues found that in mice, primary methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas exhibited an antitumor immune response mediated by lymph node cells to cancer cells derived from the primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of melanoma-specific T cells in patients led to the strategy of adoptively transferring large numbers of in vitro-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) which has proven that the immune system has the potential to control cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a lack of oxygen can cause glycolytic behavior in cells, tumor cells also undergo aerobic glycolysis, in which they preferentially produce lactate from glucose even given abundant oxygen, called the Warburg effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. (nih.gov)
  • Peripheral blood monocytosis >1 x 109/L. Less than 20% blasts (including promonocytes) in the blood and bone marrow (blast count is less than 2% on average) Two or more of the following criteria: Hemoglobin F increased for age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immature granulocytes and nucleated red cells in the peripheral blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • platelets
  • Although most researchers predicted that thrombopoietin (TPO) would be a lineage specific regulator, with physiologic effects limited to megakaryocytes and platelets, it became clear that it is also an important growth factor of hematopoietic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • immune
  • CD137 (4-1BB) a member of TNFR superfamily, is known to be expressed on various types of immune cells including activated T cells, CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Similar to other myeloid cells, MDSCs interact with other immune cell types including T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells to regulate their functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These MDSCs infiltrate inflammation sites and tumors, where they stop immune responses by inhibiting T cells and NK cells, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • G-CSF is produced by endothelium, macrophages, and a number of other immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • For discovering the central role of dendritic cells in the adaptive immune response, Steinman was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2007 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unambiguous evidence for the inability in humans of a systemic immune response to eliminate immunogenic cancer cells was provided by Boon's 1991 studies of antigens that elicit specific CD8+ T cell responses in melanoma patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coexistence of a progressing melanoma with melanoma-specific T cells implicitly does not involve immunoediting, but does not exclude the possibility of TME immune suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transplant
  • The EWOG-MDS JMML study allows each child's physician to determine whether or not a splenectomy should be done, and large spleens are commonly removed prior to bone marrow transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The role of chemotherapy or other pharmacologic treatments against JMML before bone marrow transplant has not been studied completely and its importance is still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Head of Hematology at the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the University of British Columbia for 18 years (1985-2003) he engineered the building of one of the first and largest bone marrow transplant programs in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Iida H et al (2012) Hypoxia induces CD133 expression in human lung cancer cells by up-regulation of OCT3/4 and SOX2. (springer.com)
  • They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia also causes the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1-α), which induces angiogenesis and is associated with poorer prognosis and the activation of genes associated with metastasis, leading, for instance, to increased cell migration and also ECM remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • The bone cavity is filled with soft BM and blood vessels. (jci.org)
  • In 1917, Florence Sabin first observer of blood vessels and red blood cells in the yolk sac of chick embryos occur in close proximity and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • markedly
  • After irradiation or factor deprivation, Bcl-2 markedly enhanced clonogenic survival of all tested progenitor and preprogenitor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Such organ-selective depletion of host tissue APCs also markedly reduced the trafficking of allogeneic CD8 + T cells into the livers and spleens, but not PLN and MLN, of B6 recipients compared with that of the control mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • When C3H.SW CD8 + T cells were activated in normal B6 recipients, recovered, and adoptively transferred into secondary B6 recipients, activated donor CD8 + T cells rapidly migrated into the livers and spleens of control B6 recipients but were markedly decreased in B6 mice that were depleted of hepatic and splenic macrophages and DCs. (jimmunol.org)
  • antigens
  • Such studies support the hypothesis that maternally derived colostral alloantibody targeting a bovine antigen (or antigens) causes the bone marrow pathology in calves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C. Reis e Sousa, P. D. Stahl, and J. M. Austyn, Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • The further specialized a cell is, the more differentiated it is and as a result it is considered to be more committed to a certain cellular lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Cytological analysis revealed that the decrease in myeloid colonies resulted mainly from the inhibition of macrophage colony formation. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, soluble hJagged-1 led to the inhibition of macrophage colony formation supported by M-CSF plus SCF and GM-CSF plus SCF. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of CD8 T cell migration into the livers of recipient mice could significantly reduce the hepatic damage as well as the severity of acute GVHD in recipient mice ( 15 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression and unacceptably low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), making patients susceptible to infections and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of neutropenia include chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • No matter the cause, this leaves the extracellular microenvironment acidic (pH 6.5-6.9), while the cancer cells themselves are able to remain neutral (ph 7.2-7.4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • 89 Zr-oxine PET imaging reveals rapid bone marrow homing of transferred bone marrow cells without impairment of their stem cell functions, and thus, could provide useful information for optimizing HSCT. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, agonistic anti-4-1BB mAb suppressed CD8 + T cell responses against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and influenza virus if the mAb was given early in the infection ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, tissue-resident APCs control the local recruitment of allo-reactive donor T cells and the subsequent development of acute GVHD. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, T cell-mediated toxicity is particularly critical to the injuries in the liver and skin ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • mice
  • Presumably because of enhanced cell survival, the mice displayed increases in myeloid cells as well as a marked elevation in B and T lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Indeed, bcl-2 transgenes rescued macrophage production in mice deficient in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) ( 13 ) and T lymphopoiesis in mice deficient in IL-7 signaling ( 14 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • S. E. Macatonia, C.-S. Hsieh, K. M. Murphy, and A. O'Garra, Dendritic cells and macrophages are required for Thl development of CD4' T cells from a(3 TCR transgenic mice: IL-12 substitution for macrophages to stimulate IFN-y production is IFN-y-dependent. (springer.com)
  • By assessing the proliferation of 4-1BB +/+ and 4-1BB −/− T cells in lymphocyte-deficient RAG2 −/− and RAG2 −/− 4-1BB −/− mice, we were able to compare the effects on T cell responses of 4-1BB expression on myeloid versus T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • instead, more DCs in the secondary lymphoid organs of RAG2 −/− 4-1BB −/− mice appeared to induce the enhanced T cell proliferation by producing and transpresenting more IL-15. (jimmunol.org)
  • Memory CD8 + T cells were reduced in 4-1BBL −/− mice infected with influenza virus or LCMV Armstrong and 4-1BB −/− mice infected with mouse CMV (MCMV) ( 10 - 12 ) but normal in 4-1BB −/− and 4-1BBL −/− mice infected with Vaccinia virus ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, adoptively transferred OVA-specific 4-1BB −/− CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells grew more rapidly in 4-1BB-sufficient mice ( 4 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To measure the effect of tissue-resident APCs on the local development of acute GVHD, we selectively depleted host macrophages and DCs from the livers and spleens, but not from the skin, peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), or mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), of C57BL/6 (B6) mice by i.v. administration of liposomal clodronate before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Depletion of host hepatic and splenic macrophages and DCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of donor C3H.SW CD8 + T cells in the spleen, but not in the PLN or MLN, of B6 mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Initial studies indicated that the infiltration of allogeneic CD8 T cells into the livers of recipient mice began as early as 4 days and peaked by 14 days following allo-BMT ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • There was also a GPR84 downregulation in dentritic cell derived from FcRgamma chain KO mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ablating lysosomal acid lipase (Lal-/-) in mice led to aberrant expansion of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) (>40% in the blood, and >70% in the bone marrow) that arise from dysregulated production of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPR84 expression was increased by 49.9 times in M1 type macrophages isolated from aortic atherosclerotic lesions of LDLR-/- mice were fed a western diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hemangioblast theory, which posits that the RBCs and ECs derive from a common progenitor cell, was developed as researchers observed that receptor knockout mice, such as flk1-/-, exhibited defective RBC formation and vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, regardless of whether they are from mice or human, MDSC suppressor function lies in their ability to inhibit T cell proliferation and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in mice has shown that G-CSF may decrease bone mineral density. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • In addition, we focus on studies of animal models and in vitro assays that have provided direct insights into the actions of these osteoblastic and vascular niches, revealing central roles for numerous signaling and adhesion molecules. (jci.org)
  • MDSCs
  • MDSCs are discriminated from other myeloid cell types in which they possess strong immunosuppressive activities rather than immunostimulatory properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GR1 marker is made up of two cell membrane molecules, Ly6C and Ly6G, and according to their relative expression levels murine MDSCs are further classified into two subtypes, monocytic and granulocytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human MDSCs are less characterized, and they are generally defined as myeloid cells expressing CD33, CD14 and low levels of HLA DR. The absence of the human equivalent to the murine GR1 marker makes it difficult to compare murine and human MDSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDSCs derive from bone marrow precursors usually as the result of a perturbed myeloipoiesis caused by different pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Recently we have developed a transgenic vector for targeting expression specifically to the hematopoietic compartment by exploiting the promoter region of the vav gene, which is expressed in virtually all hematopoietic cells but very few others ( 26 - 29 ). (pnas.org)
  • This includes: 15-20% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) 25% of patients with mutations in one of the RAS family of oncogenes (only in their leukemia cells) Another 35% of patients with a mutation in a gene called PTPN11 (again, only in their leukemia cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The MIR155HG was initially identified as a gene that was transcriptionally activated by promoter insertion at a common retroviral integration site in B-cell lymphomas and was formerly called BIC (B-cell Integration Cluster). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is inserted into the genetic material of Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • EPCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and experiments were carried out to determine the dose- and time-dependent effects of GM-CSF on angiogenesis, proliferation, viability, migration and vasculogenesis. (scielo.org.za)
  • The process of angiogenesis is dysregulated to feed the cancer cells and as a result the vasculature formed differs from that of normal tissue. (wikipedia.org)